Swimbi PCB https://swimbi.com PCB Blog Mon, 23 Nov 2020 09:03:21 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.3.6 Top 10 Aluminium PCB Manufacturers https://swimbi.com/top-10-aluminium-pcb-manufacturers/ Sat, 21 Nov 2020 02:14:50 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=614 Stay glued to the article till you get to the end as you are about to get value on the ...

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Stay glued to the article till you get to the end as you are about to get value on the top 10 aluminium manufacturers. Many always get confused when choosing aluminium PCB manufacturer that will do an excellent perfect job for them. This article is an eye-opener.

That said, there’s need to understand what PCB is and then aluminium PCB before you can choose an excellent manufacturer.

What is the Printed Circuit Board (PCB)?

PCB( printed circuit board reinforce and interconnect both the electrical and electronic constituents using a conductive track. It mainly consists of a flat sheet substance attached with copper foil laminated to the substrate. The foil is divided into past and vias which perform various functions.

What is Aluminium PCB?

This type of PCB has a similar layer to other PCB. Instead of having fibreglass or a plastic substrate, it possesses a silkscreen layer and solder mask. It is a mixture of lead and tin with a metal substrate.

The aluminium board is useful in LED electronic because it lengthens the lifetime of LED and durability.

Aluminium PCB has the unique characteristic of keeping heat away from the board to avert any form of damage. Thus, aluminium PCB is also called, ” good thermal conductive PCB”.

You are about to learn about the top ten aluminium PCB manufacturers but before that, let’s briefly talk about the application of aluminium PCB.


Application of Aluminum PCB

  • It’s applicable in the streetlight, spotlight, flashlight, e.t.c.
  • It’s highly important and applicable in system automotive LED
  • It’s also useful in electric motor control
  • LED application
  • Also applicable in photovoltaic


Advantages of Aluminum PCB

The aluminium board is the most thermally conductive PCB option. They keep heat away from vital component to ensure minimal circuit damage.

Good high level of heat tolerance. The substrate created always has a high level of physical durability that lowers the risk of breakage.

Aluminium PCB is also environmentally friendly and in addition to a reasonable cost.

Aluminium PCB is a type of PCB to reckon with because of its durability, environmentally friendly, accessibility, and its lightweight.

Here are the ten professional aluminium PCB manufacturers that you can trust.

Aluminium PCB

1. Ray PCB

If all you need is reliability and expertise, Ray PCB is a manufacturing aluminium PCB company that offers 100% reliability.

100% satisfaction of customers is the company’s competitive advantage. The company has earned the trust of its customers worldwide by being credible.

The strength in credibility is their dominant factor. Smart and competent engineers make up the working force of Ray PCB. The company business ecosystem is the best for customers.



2. Eastwin Global Limited

Eastwin is one of the leading industry in the production of aluminium printed board circuit (PCB) for their uniqueness in thermal management of PCBs. The use of quality materials and their accommodation for standard and professional ethics stands them out among other companies. The company is known to always maintain quality materials in the three layers of an aluminium printed circuit. The three layers include the circuit layer, the insulation layer and the base layer.


3. Fast PCBA

The great advantage of Fast PCBA aluminium manufacturing industry is their marketing system. Situated in China, they have the capacity of five million points per day and quality control equipment.

Their corporate culture enhances their productivity and as well the brand reliability. They have a flexible and as well as outstanding comprehensive service.

Fast PCBA is one of the best for your quality aluminium PCB.

Fast PCBA obtained 1SO9 001 in May 2016, they also obtained UL certification as well as IS01400 certification in December 2001. You should be rest assured to get the best from them.


4. Amitron

This is one of the experience aluminium PCB manufacturers. they have been in the market manufacturing standard metal base for decades.

For more than thirty-five years, amitron has provided outstanding high-quality aluminium printed circuit board with sound customer service.

The strength of Amitron lies in constantly improving their qualification by automating their process of manufacturing and updating equipment.

This in turn ensures standard quality at the lowest cost. There’s no order too difficult for the company to handle because of their expert staff and investment. The under-listed factors differentiate Amitron from other aluminium PCB manufacturing industries.

  • High quality
  • Competitive pricing
  • The expertise of staffs from the engineers to the customer service


5. Rapid Circuit

Rapid circuit is a professional aluminium PCB design and manufacturing company equipped with the right ecosystem to manufacture high standard aluminium PCB.

The company was established in 2017. Despite their recent operation in aluminium PCB manufacturing industry, Rapid circuit is setting the pace for starters.

The company have one of the fastest services from schematic to layout and mainly operate on the latest designs. They obtained international recognition for their outstanding performance and high tech expertise. The following are the values you will enjoy from Rapid circuit.

  • Time delivery
  • Adherence to international norms of quality
  • Selling products at pocket-friendly prices
  • One to one consultation service


6. Well PCB

Well PCB is a well-known registered aluminium PCB industry in Australia. It’s one of the most preferred aluminium PCB manufacturing company by customers because of the following factors inherent in the company’s corporate culture.

Fast delivery: Well PCB have one of the fastest delivery options. They produce a quick turn to meet twenty-four hours delivery.

Competitive price: even though they offer one of the competitive prices in the world, they as well accept the following means of payment:

  • T/T
  • Cash
  • Credit Card
  • PayPal and
  • Bank transfer

Aluminium Substrate

On-Time and Safety Delivery

The company uses numerous means for delivery to customers such as FedEx, normal shipping and door to door service.

Quality Assurance

All products adhere to the regulatory bodies specifications. They also ensure that all their products undergo multiple testing services.

Excellent Customer Service

At Well PCB, the customer is always right is their practising principle.


7. Advance Standard

With the experience and operational expertise and capacity of Advance Standard aluminium PCB manufacturing industry, you are certain to get the best.

The high ethical standard and value stand them out. You can be certain to get your standard aluminium PCB from them.


8. American standard company

The aluminium PCB manufacturing company was founded in 1988. The company is one of the leading aluminium PCB manufacturing company.

With many years of experience in manufacturing professional aluminium PCB, the company has earned the trust of its customers.

They have succeeded to maintain the standard of operations over time.



This is one of the leading aluminium PCB manufacturers. The company have recorded high-performance overtime.

The capability of MCPCB hinges on the quality of materials used in manufacturing product.


10. More PCB Limited

The outstanding feature of this aluminium printed circuit board manufacturer is that the company is endowed with experienced professional staffs that can manufacture aluminium PCB with high thermal conductivity.

The company has recorded professional excellence over time. Offering a high standard value and high tech option is their core value.

Here are the following reasons why aluminium PCB manufactured by more PCB LTD is one of the best to use.

The Length of the Aluminium Base PCB

The company supplies up to 150-160mm of the aluminium base material of LED PCB for effective heat dissipation.

Standard and Professional Quality

The high standard and professional quality are as a result of more than ten years experience in aluminium PCB fabrication.

Excellent Customer Service

Customer is their utmost priority, therefore, the customer service representative provides technical consulting service. The customer service department and the engineers provide technical support to you.

Quick Turn-Around

As soon as you get the prototype, there’s always mass assembly to support high business demand to save time.

aluminium board

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Aluminium PCB

1. How Can You Describe Aluminium PCB?

Absence of plastic substrate and fibreglass differentiate aluminium PCB from any other printed circuit board.

This kind of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is highly difficult to manufacture. Despite they can be double-sided, they also have a unique feature of being single-sided.


2. What is the Best Description for Aluminium Substrate?

This is mostly used in LED and some Power converting electronic. Aluminium substrate help to direct away intensive light produced by LED, therefore, protecting the component from overheating because the LED produces a high level of heat.

Another unique description of the aluminium substrate helps in extending the life span of LED and as well increase the stability of the LED.

The various places where the aluminium substrate can be found street light and household lightening.

Conversion of power and regulation of electric are efficient nature of PCB aluminium board.

These are the reasons why other industries make use of the aluminium board only that the implementation is not immediately.


3. What’s the Reason for Using Aluminium in Circuit Board?

Since aluminium can transfer heat away from the component and reducing the heat because of the effect. using aluminium is necessary for safety. It also Accord strength and durability to a  product. Ceramic and fibreglass don’t possess this unique characteristic.


4. What are the Advantages of Aluminum PCB?

First, mining and refining aluminium is easy because of their accessibility in a different climate. This result in the low cost of aluminium of PCB, unlike other metal that is more expensive to mine.

Second, they are environmentally friendly because it’s a non-stop toxic substance as well as highly recyclable. The environmental friendliness of aluminium makes aluminium PCB to be highly recommended to customers.

The third reason is that excessive high temperature can cause damage to electronics. So, it’s always wise to use a material which can regulate the heat and also transfer heat from the component of the circuit.

Finally, the weight of aluminium metal is very light and that contributes to the durability of the board. There’s resilience, strength in aluminium and these don’t add any additional value to the aluminium metal.

5. What are the Classifications of Aluminum PCB?

Aluminium PCB is divided into three:

Universal Aluminium PCB

In this kind of aluminium PCB, the layer of dielectric is practically made of glass tuber made up of epoxy.

High Thermal Conductive Aluminium PCB

Here the dielectric layer is made up of resin with enormous high thermal conductivity.

High-Frequency Aluminium PCB

This kind of aluminium PCB is one that the dielectric layer is composed of resin glass fibre which gives aluminium PCB unique high-frequency characteristic.


6. What are the Manufacturing Difficulties of Aluminum PCB?

Most of the problems encountered during manufacturing Aluminium PCB are all the same from different quarters because the production procedures are the same.

Below are some difficulties encountered during manufacturing Aluminium PCB:

Copper etching

The problem of copper etching is always encountered when the copper foil is over 30z. The copper foil always needs compensation because the copper foil use in Aluminium PCB is thicker. When the design is not per the design expected, it will be difficult is encountered mostly in the copper foil.

Mechanical manufacturing

There are three basic mechanical processes in manufacturing, and they are drilling, modelling and scoring.

Those processes lead to reduce the electrical strength if not we’ll manage. The drilling parameter can as well be adjusted to prevent further damage by constant generation.

This will facilitate your mechanical manufacturing.


7. How Important Is Aluminium PCB And The Areas You Can Apply Aluminium PCB?

Aluminium PCB has a diverse use and it’s widely applicable majorly in all sectors of human existence.

The under-listed are some few areas where aluminium PCB is put to use:

  • Medical theatre lightening
  • High power converter
  • Interior decorator lightening
  • Power scanner
  • Signal beacon
  • Electrical transmission system
  • Lightening tools used in surgery


8. Why is it that Aluminium PCB is so Popular?

Some benefits make the aluminium PCB to be useful and popular to all. Listed below are the few benefits that make aluminium PCB to achieve wide popularity.

  • Lightweight
  • Able to control and minimise heat
  • Strong and last long
  • Zero negative environmental impact



You now know the best manufacturers of Aluminium Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). Which of these companies do you like their services the most?

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Top 8 China PCBA Manufacturers https://swimbi.com/top-8-china-pcba-manufacturers/ Sat, 21 Nov 2020 02:14:06 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=612 In this 21st century, we can’t do away with technology, because it’s very crucial in our day to day activities, ...

Read moreTop 8 China PCBA Manufacturers

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In this 21st century, we can’t do away with technology, because it’s very crucial in our day to day activities, ranging from our televisions to office gadgets.

Without technology, we would live in fear of the unknown, but with it, we can project a lot of things and tackle them if need be.

Technology has made life easier for us, we don’t have to stand in queues just to get things done, with our smartphone we can transmit signals technically and get things done with ease, but these electrical gadgets wouldn’t be complete if there aren’t any assembled PCB on it.

It is with the help of an assembled PCB that those signals can be transmitted far and near within seconds.

What’s a PCB?

PCB is a short abbreviation for Printed Circuit Board which is a layer board made up of silk, substrate, copper, fibreglass and others.

Nowadays, printed circuits can be seen everywhere, even though they have different designs, they still conform to a few basic design principles.

Printed Circuit boards can also be called Etched Wiring Board or Printed Wiring Board or Printed Wiring Cards.

Types of PCBs

  • One single-sided (one copper layer)
  • Double-sided (two copper layer)
  • Multi-layer (outer and inner layers)
  • Rigid PCBs
  • Flex PCBs and
  • Rigid-flex PCBs


A PCB is sometimes rigid but its flexibility is required when the copper layer mounted is on a flexible material to resist high temperatures. Rigid Flex PCB . PCBs made it possible to reduce the size of electronic equipment, but it’s also made to manufacture an effective and more cost circuit.

PCBs now serve as a compact and quick to respond to current option to the olden form of wires and big resistors in a box which makes it heavier.

PCB comprises of different layers such as the copper layers, pad, the solder mask, silkscreen and so on.

Meanwhile, a PCB can’t carry out its full function if it’s not assembled, that brings us to know what a PCBA means before we delve fully into letting you know the top 8 China PCBA Manufacturers.

Printed Circuit boards

What’s a PCBA?

PCBA known as Printed Circuit Board Assembly is a process of joining and assembling electrical components such as capacitors, diodes on the printed circuit board which makes it fully connective, and stable.

PCBA makes the gadgets less in weight because it’s capacitors, transistors are mounted on the printed circuit board, so you wouldn’t have to worry about carrying heavy resistors and other electrical components to connect them to get your gadgets functioning.

During the assembling of the PCBs, most PCB company’s use Through-hole technology (THT) or surface mount technology (SMT) or both technologies mixed to mount PCBA depending on the components and circuits to be assembled.

Best PCBA manufacturer in China

There are lots of PCBA manufacturers now due to the speed at which new technologies are been invented. However, a lot of them can’t manufacture it to suit the device it’s used for.

That is why we decided to go in-depth to know some companies that give the best and we found eight of these companies worthy to be called a PCB manufacturing company.

So, if you’ve been looking for one, look no further because the right place to manufacture PCBA is right here. We assure you the best and quick manufacturing PCBA companies.

Below are the 8 PCBA companies that we can guarantee you of:


1. RayPCB

RayPCB, also known as RayMing Technologies are experts in manufacturing and assembling rigid, flex, rigid-flex and high reliable PCBs.

They deliver speedily and are solely committed to making sure the manufacturing process goes on smoothly without any flaws to meet your quote.

They also do free custom and DFM checkings, PCB electric test which is used to exhibit the process before assembling and PCBA function test which helps in detecting whether the components are placed on the right dimensions, all it does is to verify the process.

Ray PCB designs give space for other components for its efficiency and increase the complexity of designs mechanically to improve the rate at which gadgets solutions are optimized.

They are also customer friendly and have many years of experiences in the PCB industry. With RayPCB you are assured of a PCBA that decreases the stress and weak points of a gadget.

RayPCB manufactures and assembles multi-layer PCB, express PCB, ceramic PCB, flexible PCB, rigid PCB, rigid-flex PCB, high volume PCB, HDI PCB, aluminium PCB, led PCB and many others.

One thing RayPCB does that I like is the way they design, manufacture and assemble Printed Circuit Boards, exactly as the customer’s specifications with international standards.

Ray PCBs are always tested with an Automated X-ray Inspection (AXI) and Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) to enhance the efficiency of the PCBs and to increase the speed at which it is been delivered.


For PCBs, RayPCB is the best PCBA plug.

If the military can trust them with their Rogers PCB manufacturing and assembling, then they are worth it.


2. PCBSky

PCBSky is more than capable of providing a high PCBA service. They are active in taking prototype orders, and printed circuit board products orders.

They specialize in microelectronics, PCB prototypes. They can also manufacture and assemble the exact specification of PCBs you want and also give you a solution for the effective running of your PCBA.

They support their customers, provide quality service and deliver on time.


3. Cesgate

Cesgate is a company that has invested heavily in the world’s most modern manufacturing and test equipment industry.

They are professionals in manufacturing flex and rigid-flex PCBs, high TG PCBs, HDI PCBs.

Cesgate is a global brand that establishes a long term relationship with its customers and offers them a fast, solid and reliable PCBA service without any delay in delivery.

They don’t just produce PCBs, they assemble it, and also provide a sure solution for their customer electrical manufacturing devices. They are very efficient in terms of service. You can try them out.


JLCPCB provides reliable cost reduction PCBA solutions in the electronic industry, they deliver high-quality PCBs on time and they know how to maintain the company-customer relationship.

JLCPCB has proven to have the best PCB prototypes in China and provides full PCB assembly.


5. GreatPCB

GreatPCB just as their names sounds are great when it comes to PCB designing, manufacturing and assembling.

GreatPCB have been into this industry for over 15years and have taken over many electronic sectors, due to how they provide quick full turn-key printed circuit board assembly services which include functional testing and sourcing the electrical components.


6. ChinaPCBOne

ChinaPCBOne makes your PCBA designs a reality. They design, order components, manufacture, assemble and test PCBs.

Their factory is most concentrated in the electronic manufacturing industry. They produce High density interconnects (HDI) PCB, special printed circuit board materials, impedance control PCB, and full and partial turnkey PCB.

Their assembling capacities are

You can contact them for your PCB procurement and assembling.


THT7. PCBOnline

PCBOnline is very good when it concerns prototypes and assembling of PCBs. They deliver your PCBA on time and they make sure PCBA suits your business needs.

They make use of advanced machines such as solder paste detection. They provide various assembly solutions including the Surface mount technology, Through Hole Technology (THT) and then the turn-key assembly. They give you an international standard PCBA quality.


8. Aiketon Electronics Limited

Aiketon Electronics Limited offer a wide range of products, ranging from the manufacturing and assembling of PCBs to manufacturing of the original pieces of equipment.

Their services are fast, easy and economical. Not minding the rate at which they provide their services, they make sure it comes out with very good quality.

With the services offered by Aiketon, you can never go wrong in terms of PCBs down to the main electronics.

They provide functional testing, custom tape and reel packaging, automatic(PTH) insertion, robotic soldering and manual insertion during the manufacturing and assembling of the PCBs.

The way the PCBs are assembled gives a lasting impression that you got the value of your money.

You can get HDI boards, Teflon and hybrid boards, heavy copper weight and rigid-flex PCBs from them at an affordable price.

They give free DFM reports and gives you the best solution to PCBs. They also deliver complete manufacturing solutions at its best quality as if it’s theirs.


Things We Considered for the Best PCBA Manufacturers

Before concluding on the companies that offer the best PCBs, here is what we checked:


1. Components Library

There is this mistake most companies do, and that’s not drawing those designs before designing it, which makes them end up wasting customers’ time, resources and components.

A PCBA engineer ensures that all components he drew in his design are ready before the actual design begins.

And with the drawn design, they can know where to rightly install the components on the circuit board beforehand, and what prototype to use.

Then detect on which mounting technology to use for the assembling, then the PCB board is ready for designing.


2. Interior Design

No one wants an untidy job, that’s when the interior design comes in place. When designing, the size of the board should be considered and the spaces in it too, to make the printed circuit board efficient for use.

The pieces of equipment used during this process should be put in check, ensuring that the equipment and technology used are appropriate when designing the board is an important factor to consider, to avoid unnecessary patchworks and PCBs that might end up not working under the space of a week.

It’s just like brushing a long hair, while it should be combed, it will end up making the hair tattered, therefore losing its attractiveness within a few minutes.


3. Placement

The Placement also known as Layouts, should be looked into cause it’s very crucial. If the circuits are not placed on the right positions, the circuit board won’t be efficient.

The circuit boards that carry the same function should be placed near to each other and the components it contains should have spaces to make the connection easier for its functioning.

When installing, the way the small quality components are being installed shouldn’t be the same as the way the high-quality components should be installed, cause most of the high-quality components conducts a lot of heat and if it’s not rightly placed, it would affect other components, in other to prevent that, it’s placed separately from elements that can’t take the convection of heat.

Also, the right circuits should be rightly placed in order. You don’t place the circuits open circuit on where a closed circuit to be to avoid sparks.


4. Connectivity

When wiring, make sure you follow electrical standard rules. Once there is a misplacement in technology, the PCBA can’t function properly.

Wrong wiring sometimes results in electric shocks, and malfunctioning of the PCBA.


5. Tear Drop Shape (TDS)

From the name, you should have known what it would look like. It’s that shape in the circuit board that looks like a drop of tear, used to prevent the contraction of wire and guide-hole & the contraction of wire and pad when an external force is mounted on the circuit board.

So when going for a PCBA, make sure the TDS is properly placed between the wire and pad between the through-hole and wire.


6. Technology and Qualities Used

When mounting the PCB assembly, the surface mount technology should be used on small components like diodes and integrated circuits, whilst, thru-hole technology should be used on large components like capacitors.

In some situations, mixed technology is used when they are relatively small and large components in the assembly.

Then the quality should be standard and efficient for use.


7. Customer relations

A responsive customer care service tells how professional a company is. That way, customers can get to tell you how they want their PCBA to be like and also communicate easily if need be.


The PCBA Manufacturer You Should Go For

When searching for a PCBA manufacturer who would design according to your specifications and international standards, go for any of these 8 manufacturers above.

You don’t have to worry about standing in queues, because they all have enough engineers and their customer service is top-notch.

Now you have the best, the rest that makes up your electrical device is an assurance.

What are the criteria you look out for when searching for the best PCBA company?

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Top 10 PCBA Manufacturing Factories https://swimbi.com/top-10-pcba-manufacturing-factories/ Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:12:32 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=499 In this article, you will learn about the 10 major companies that specialize in the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) ...

Read moreTop 10 PCBA Manufacturing Factories

The post Top 10 PCBA Manufacturing Factories appeared first on Swimbi PCB.

In this article, you will learn about the 10 major companies that specialize in the Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) both in China and other parts of the world.

But before that, let us understand what PCBA mean.

Top 10 PCBA Manufacturing Factories

What Is PCBA?

PCBA stands for Printed Circuit Board Assembly. It is the process involved in the designing of PCBs: Printed Circuit Boards.  PCBA relates to the very component placement on PCB. Multiple electronic components are assembled and soldered into position on the circuit board.

Therefore, PCBA is a complete package; fitted with the necessary components, which is also ready for deployment for the very purpose it was designed.

PCB: Printed Circuit Board, on the other hand, is a vital electronic component. It is a support for electronic components and serves as a carrier for electronic connections between electronic components. It is called printed because it is produced by printing the required image on the substrate.

Therefore, the purpose of this article is to list or reveal the top 10 PCBA companies we have, which are as follows:

1. Ray PCB

Ray PCB is one of the leading PCBA companies in the world. RayMing Technology stands out and taller above every other PCB manufacturers in China; with outstanding prowess and expertise.

Ray PCB was established in 2005 and has created a massive and deep value in PCB manufacturing in China and around the world.

They did not become highly sought-after in the PCB industry by focusing on one kind of PCB production. Rather, they got their outstanding prestige by also exploring and producing other kinds of PCBs, such as; multilayer and double-sided; offering high-end boards; high-frequency PCB; metal core PCB; Rigid-flex PCB and many more productions with quality fabrication.

Ray PCB is globally focused. What it means is that its products are not strictly made for the Chinese market only. In the bid to fill the gap and satisfy the needs of more industries, Ray PCB has been able to create and provide specialized worldwide productions.

Ray PCB is good at on-demand delivery, as there is no delay in its delivery of products to its buyers. This is because most buyers would always want the products to arrive early, which Ray PCB has proven unbeatable.

Lastly, Ray PCB is highly customer-centred. Ray PCB puts its customers above all odd and this, in turn, has created trust in the mind of the customers.

The company has been able to provide and facilitate formidable specialized customer service for its customers, which has increased the patronizing power of the company. To know more about this company’s products and services, visit their website.

Ray pcb


In the Chinese PCB manufacturing; PCBWAY has made itself outstanding. The company, which has its headquarters at Xiacheng China, was founded in 2014 and Mr Yan is the CEO.

It may be a very young company but, it has made tremendous impacts in the PCBs market in China and beyond. PCBWAY is a PCB and PCBA company in one. And in the last 5 years of its existence, it has grown to include customers in more than 150 countries.

PCBWAY specializes in PCB prototype and small & medium-sized manufacturing.  PCBWAY came into the PCB manufacturing and has redefined PCB manufacturing in a way that many other companies are looking up to.

And this is evident in the company’s specialities on PCB Assembly services, SMT Assembly, and custom PCB Design and Manufacturing.

They have about 99% of high delivery rates. Through the years, the company is proud of keeping to an on-time delivery rate, shortest possible lead-time, which is very crucial for engineers’ R&D works, especially in the stage of prototyping.

PCBWAY has potential means of generating great patronize through the use of high-speed Pick and Place Machines that can process about 28,000 SMD components per hour.

The company has topnotch experience in the field of PCB prototype and fabrication. They are committed to meeting the needs of its customers from across different industries in terms of quality, delivery, cost-effectiveness and other demanding requests. You may want to patronize this company. To know about this company.


3. Bicheng Enterprise Limited

Bicheng Enterprise Limited is another great PCB manufacturing factory in China. They are located in Shenzhen, China.  It is a go-to company when it comes to providing the best Printed Circuit Board services. It was founded in 2003 and is focused in heavy Copper PCBs for about 15 years and more.

It is also on record that Bicheng Enterprise Limited tops as a qualified PCB supplier in the world. The company is vastly documented and has a strapping network in the PCB industry. They leverage on the production of high-quality iron-based PCBs, as well as other variants: copper-based and aluminium-based PCBs.

As noted above, they offer different types of PCB designs, ranging from fibreglass to regularity, metalcore, and ceramic. Its extensive product line includes double-sided PCBs, multilayer PCBs, high frequency and aluminium PCBs.

Among other qualities, it meets up with market demands on PCBs requirements and delivers on time with door-to-door transport delivery services.

Lastly, it provides prototype testing, free of charges. The board thickness is between 0.20-6.00mm. You may want to know more about this great company and patronize them. To know more about the company and its service.


4. Suntek Electronics

Suntek Electronics is a Chinese PCB Assembly company. The company was established in 2007 and now has 35,000 square feet clean workshop and around 200+ well-trained operators.

Suntek Electronics is certified by ISO9001, ISO13485, IATF16949 and UL.

They offer a variety of PCBA services including SMT, THT and final assembly with ICT and functional product test.

They also offer Rigid-flex PCB boards services, which are rigid and flexible printed circuit boards by vacuum lamination.

Besides, you will like their Rigid-flex product types that range from Single-sided Flexible to Double-sided Flexible, Multilayer Flexible and Multilayer Rigid and Flexible combinations.

Suntek Electronics offers their PCBA services to the PCB markets in China and around the world with a high-quality, one-stop solution to all electronics manufacturing services requirements, ranging from fast turnaround prototyping to high volume manufacturing.

Suntek Electronics can identify design or production issues during the prototype stage and solve it before production.

It is also one of the foremost suppliers of PCB products, and have been offering prototype PCB Assembly, including cable assembly over multiple years. This company has greatly contributed to the PCB market with qualified products with pocket-friendly prices in and around the world.

While they specialize in surface mount tech, conventional and mixed tech assembly, they also design a new product with quick prototyping for the test.

You may want to visit and do business with the company.

PCB Boards

5. Hitech Circuit Limited

Hitech Circuit Co., Ltd is a Chinese national high-tech enterprise which focuses on research, development, production and sales of Printed Circuit Boards. They are known for their strong manufacturing expertise and scale, modern management system and one-stop, multiple varieties of production.

They have contributed and is still contributing to high-quality PCBs in the world through great experience and prowess in the field.

Hitech Circuit Co., Limited was founded in 1997 and has grown into one of the largest, greatest and well experienced PCB Manufacturing and Assembling Company in China and around the world.

They now top as one of the world leaders in thermal management technology development. The company also prides itself on its delivery excellence and attentive customer services.

They manufacture high-quality PCBs, low-cost barebones, quick-turn prototypes and medium production volumes printed circuit board.

They also specialize in PCB prototype, Aluminum PCB, Multilayer PCB: up to 26 layers, Quick turn PCB, High-Density PCB/HDI PCB and low volume PCB production, with high fabrication service offer level of customization to suit all price and requirements.

Hitech Circuit Co., Limited is also a PCB and PCBA manufacturer in China that has a long-standing tradition of quality and excellence. To know more about this great company and the services they offer.


6. 86PCB

86PCB is a new brand of JY Electronic, and have been in the PCB and PCBA market since 1998. It is one of those companies that were part of the formative process of the PCB industry in China.

86PCB specializes in Printed Circuit Board and Printed Circuit Board Assembly manufacturing. It provides PCB one-stop service that includes PCB Design and Manufacturing, PCB Assembly, PCB Reverse Engineering and Inspection/test.

The company has quite a lot of tech-know-how on PCB production, and High-Precision and Special Materials Circuit Boards are its expertise. The company produces Multilayer HDI PCB, Isola Rogers, Teflon, etc.

It has a strong quality control system and is well certified. It also has one of the best on-time delivery and easy PCB order status tracking. To know more about this company’s products and services.


7. Nexlogic Logo

Nexlogic Logo is a USA based PCB company located in California. It was founded in 1995, and has established itself both in America and in the world, to be a premier provider of PCB design services, PCB Manufacturer, PCB fabricated, and PCB assembly services, and has also gained customer loyalty.

They manufacture cost-effective PCBs, fabrication, and assembly and testing. The company provides a one-stop solution for PCB assembly services such as; reliable and high-quality PCBs that have a wide range of uses in different industries such as the medical fields, defence/military, semiconductor, telecom, oceanography, and as well as the commercial market.

Nexlogic Logo is committed to providing superior quality, personalized customer service, and pays attention to details and offer competitive pricing. To know more about the company’s products and services.

PCB assembly

8. Advanced Circuitry International (ACI)

ACI (Advanced Circuitry International) is a USA based PCB company located in Duluth Georgia, USA. It was founded in 1992.

They manufacture Hi-Reliability Rigid, RF/Microwave and Antenna PCBs for the Aerospace, Defense, Telecommunications and Medical Device industries. ACI Quality Management System is AS9100D certified improving PCB quality, Lead time and price points.

ACI has four state-of-the-art facilities on three continents. ACI has 27 years of experience in global supply to the electronics manufacturing industries, and already served many markets around the world.

ACI has invested in most recent technologies, equipment and services to support a different range of products.

ACI is positioned as an outstanding supplier to the Open-Service Community of RF. To know more about its products and services.


ALLPCB is one of the top speed PCB manufacturers in China and around the world. The company is located in Xiancbeng District, China. It was in Hangzhou in 2015.

ALLPCB is a top speed PCB company that deals in almost all kinds of PCB products and services. It specializes in high quality and cheap PCB prototypes and production, PCB Assembly and SMT stencil services.

ALLPCB is a fast growing company in China, which is seriously making its impact to be felt in the PCB industry, with great customer services.

10. China PCB One

China PCB One Technology Limited, founded in 2008, is located in Shenzhen China. This is a China-based PCB company, and one of the biggest and fast-growing PCB Company in China and the world at large.

They offer one-stop PCB shop services, including PCB Design, Multilayer PCB manufacturing, Turn-Key PCB Assembly Services, and Finish Product Assembly.

They have a complete supply chain and shorten manufacturing; fast manufacturing capacity, on-time delivery; testing and final shipment, coupled with great customer services. To know more about its products and services.



PCB and PCBA are two terms that are much related in Electronics though, there cannot be PCBA without PCB. As stated above, a PCB is made from non-insulating and highly heat-resistant insulating material like fibreglass, etc. while PCBA is the assembling of PCB. Once the PCB is ready, the next thing is to assemble it with active and passive electronic components like Resistor, SMD, Capacitor, Transistor, Transformer, Diode, ICs etc.

Thus, the purpose of this article is to list and reveal the top 10 of PCB/PCBA companies across the globe. And I believe this article did do justice to that effect.

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Top 10 PCB Stencil Solder Paste Makers https://swimbi.com/top-10-pcb-stencil-solder-paste-makers/ Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:10:45 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=497 Whenever you are working with solder pastes, getting the right type of PCB Stencils is the most important to do. ...

Read moreTop 10 PCB Stencil Solder Paste Makers

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Whenever you are working with solder pastes, getting the right type of PCB Stencils is the most important to do. There are a lot of manufacturers in the world that produces these PCB Stencil Solder Pastes around the world. However, most people still struggle to get the right manufacturers.

In this article, we will show you the Top 10 PCB Stencil Paste Makers that you can buy from today. With these manufacturers, you will get the best paste makers that will make your solder process as easy as it can be.

Here are the best PCB Stencil Solder Paste Makers:


1. Rayming Technology

This is one of the biggest and best PCB manufacturing companies in the world. Located in Shenzhen, they provide the best PCB assembly services. The good thing about this company is that they ensure that the entire manufacturing process is well taken care of. From the manufacturing process, the quality control, and down to the final assembly point; they do a great job.

When it comes to manufacturing solder paste, Rayming PCB and Assembly also uses the best industrial processes to give clients the best results they can get. All the components used for the manufacturing of this paste are 100% original and are made to last over time.

The main reason why a lot of people love this company is quality control. They made the top of our list because of its strict adherence to quality control measures that give them the best results.

A lot of people buy PCB and Solder pastes from Rayming because they are reliable. They have succeeded in earning the trust of several engineers, technical, and manufacturers from all around the world.

Rayming Technology

2. ALL PCB Manufacturing

ALLPCB Manufacturing is the second company that made our list. This company has grown over the years serving engineers and technicians and helping them create the best products.

Started in 2015, this company is seen to develop the best PCBs and PCB stencil solder pastes that you can get.

When you are involving in the manufacturing process, you want to always ensure that you are getting the best products and services. This is what ALL PCB Manufacturing aims to achieve.

In this company, there is also strong attention to detail during the manufacturing process. The good thing about them is that they invest a lot of time, energy, and money to ensure that their quality control is the best. In the marketplace, there is hardly any complaint about the quality of the products customers buy from this company.

If you are looking for the best PCB manufacturers and PCB stencil solder paste makers, then ALLPCB should be your main choice.


3. Shenzhen Aibixing Industrial Co. LTD

The third company on our list is the Shenzhen Aibixing Industrial Company. Over the years, they have helped several businesses all around the world produce the best and top quality solder paste and PCB. Established in 2000, they have made the best name in FR4 PCB production in the world.

There are strong values that the Shenzhen Aibixing Industrial Company always goes back to. Some of these values are speed, integrity, and good customer service. This is what has made the company strong and ready to go on over the years.

This is some company that never compromises on their quality. Whenever you need good PCB Stencil solder paste, they are ready to deliver to you within the shortest time. They are affordable and everything involved in the manufacturing process is 100% original and authentic.

If you are looking for the right place in Shenzhen to get the best PCB, then going for Shenzhen Aibixing Industrial Company should be the perfect option for you.



Another company that has made a good name when it comes to the production of PCBs and Solder Pastes are WELLPCB PTY LTD. This company was registered in Australia and has grown to be one of the most sought after manufacturing companies in the world.

There are several reasons why people love using the solder pastes manufactured by this company. These reasons include:

They are affordable

If you are planning to go through a manufacturing process without having too much expense in your hands, then working with WELLPCB will be the right option for you. The pricing offered by this company is one of the best in the PCB industry.

The good thing about this company is that there are no hidden costs attached to the purchase of items from the company. This is one of the best things you can ever get.

They guarantee a safe delivery

This is one reason that a lot of people go hard in buying from this company. When they create a product for you, you are sure that you are getting the products safely and in one piece. Most manufacturers hardly guarantee safe delivery. This is because they may not have figured out the right means of transit. This is where this company excels greatly. It is the best!

They give the best customer service

In this business, they realize that getting the best deals come from giving customers the best value for their money. This company pays close attention to customer service. This is why they are highly appreciated.

PCB and Solder Pastes

5. Shenzhen J-wide Electronics Equipment Co. LTD

Founded in 2005, this company has made an outstanding record for themselves by providing manufacturers with premium quality products. In this company, they are responsible for creating the best when it comes to producing PCB, solder paste mixers, coating machines, etc.

The great thing about this company is that their products are manufactured and shipped to several parts of the world with ease. Manufacturers in the USA, Germany, the United Kingdom, and several parts of Europe and Asia come in to buy these products with ease.

Another great thing that makes people love working with this company is the technical support. They invest a lot of time in training their personal to give you the best technical support you need. Whether it is in installation or maintenance, you will get the best results you need.


6. Shenzhen ChangXing Industrial Technology Co., Ltd

This is one company with a mission to provide premium quality PCB material and solder pastes to improve the electronics industry. They constantly support their customers in providing materials with the best quality and affordable pricing.

The great thing about this company is that they invest a lot of time and energy in research and development to produce the best quality materials for the electronic industry. From medical devices to military devices, down to basic household items, ShenZhenChangXing Industrial Technology Co Ltd gives the best results at all times.

This is a company with vision. The vision is to be the biggest and best PCB manufacturing company in the world. They aim to provide customers with the best.


7. Beijing Glichn S&T Development Co. LTD

Founded in 2010, it is one of the biggest and highly sought after companies dealing with Stencil Solder paste manufacturing. This company is highly regarded by several engineering and manufacturing companies worldwide. All over the world, various companies make use of the equipment and products gotten from Beijing Glichn S&T Development Co. LTD for their daily manufacturing processes.

The main thing that makes people love buying from this company is the after-sales services. There is the staff that is well trained and equipped to offer top-notch solutions for their clients. For the first year after purchase, you can unlimited access to the company personnel to solve all the problems you need.

This company was created to offer you the best at all times. And so far, they have constantly delivered.


8. ASCEN Technologies LTD.

We will not be able to complete this list without making mention of ASCEN Technologies LTD. Located in Dongguan, Guangdong, China; they have manufactured several PCB and related products to customer’s delight.

The main reason why people love working with this company is that they produce the best Solder paste. Proper electronics creation will not be possible if there is not proper production of good Solder paste.

Aside from producing the best solder pastes, they are also involved in spray machine, mask welding, axial lead forming, creation of PCB conformal coating, radial tape system, stencil cleaning, etc.

Technical and customer support is also available for people that may experience difficulties during the installation process. They are always here to give you all that you need.


This is regarded as one of the most sought after PCB manufacturing company in China. This is a company that has been involved in PCBs for 14 years. When it comes to manufacturing experience, this is one company that has excelled in service delivery.

The main reason why people love working with JLCPCB is that they are leading in large scale manufacturing and they bring out superior quality materials IT is usually not easy to find customers that bring out the best quality when producing large scale materials.

This is one company that we highly recommend. That is why this is part of our list. They are the best plug for quality materials.


10. Duke Circuit Co. LTD

We will not be able to compile this list without making mention of Duke Circuit CO. LTD. This company, located in Shenzhen, China, has made a great made name when it comes to PCB Design and Assembly.

Over the years, they have conducted an excellent service delivery and given clients all that they need to get the perfect manufacturing results.

Although they are in the 10th position, they have our full recommendation.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Which Company Is The Best To Get Stencil Solder Paste?

You can get the stencil solder paste from any of the companies listed above. However, our top picks when it comes to PCBs and Solder pastes is Rayming PCB and Assembly. In this company, you are always sure of the best which the experience to give you a perfect result.

When you are going through your manufacturing process, getting the stencil solder paste should be the only thing you should do.

Please note that by choosing Rayming PCB and Assembly, we are not in any way trying to downplay other manufacturers that have made our list.


2. Can You Work With PCB Without Solder Paste?

To be honest, it is difficult to work with PCB without applying solder paste. IF you attempt this, there will be a lot of problems while working with your electronics. To get the best results while you are working, it is always best that you make good use of the solder paste while you work.

The solder paste helps to keep your solder in place. This way, your construction doesn’t fall apart while you are using your electronic devices. You often wonder why electronics always end up getting bad after some time. This is because there is usually no solder paste in place.


3. Why Should You Choose The Best PCB And Solder Paste Maker?

It is one of the most important things you need to do. Your PCB and solder paste is one of the most important parts of your device so getting a bad product could affect your business in a lot of ways.

Getting your electronic design wrong should not be an option. When your design is wrong and gets damaged in the hands of the manufacturers, a lot of customers will not be able to trust your brand.

So, as a product owner, what should you do? This is very simple. You must ensure that your PCB design is made perfect. Quality control and Quality assurance must be properly put in place to ensure that your work is perfect.


Final Words

Getting the right PCB Stencil Solder Paste maker should not be a difficult thing to do. However, most people often fall prey to charlatans that claim to produce the best. This article contains a concise list of manufacturers that you can trust and will give you the right results during your manufacturing.

Some companies in China that manufacture PCB stencil Solder pastes are not listed in this article. What we have written here are those companies that several PCB consumers prefer.

And we encourage you to use the PCB Stencil Solder Paste services offered by Ray PCB because they worth their onion in that field.

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Electronics Board Manufacturing https://swimbi.com/electronics-board-manufacturing/ Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:09:36 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=495 Development of PCBs: How PCBs for Electronic Circuits are Manufactured Manufacturing of PCBs is as essential as the assembly of ...

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Development of PCBs: How PCBs for Electronic Circuits are Manufactured

Manufacturing of PCBs is as essential as the assembly of electronic components on these circuit boarde.PCBs for Electronic Circuits are Manufactured

Printed Circuit boards or simply PCBs are the foundation of electronic circuits. It is possible to produce PCBs in a variety of ways. PCB manufacturing technology is progressing rapidly. Electronic circuit boards can now accommodate hundreds of components with an increasing number of layers and reduced track sizes. The PCB design rules are continually evolving to guarantee that the soldering processes used in manufacturing can be handled and adapted for a wide range of electronic parts, primarily for the smaller SMT components.

Different Manufacturing Techniques for PCBs

Typically, a chemical etching procedure is used to produce electronic circuit boards such as PCBs. Ferric chloride is the most popular type of etching chemical.

A photographic procedure is used to achieve the right pattern of tracks. Copper is covered with a thin film of photo-resistant on the unprocessed circuit boards. The appropriate tracks are then engraved on the board when the light passes through a photographic film and incidents on the board.

Subsequently, the printed circuit boards are immersed in a ferric chloride solution to strip away the copper from places that do not need any connection tracks. The board is put in the etching solvent for the necessary period considering the strength and thickness of copper on the board.

Alternatively, the copper of PCB boards can be scraped away with special high-precision milling machines. In this method, an instruction file is generated using a PCB design software; this computer file automates the milling process. This PCB development method is not appropriate for large volumes, but it might be an ideal choice in certain circumstances.

In another technique, the etch-resistant ink is printed onto the PCB using silkscreen printing or simply a screen-printing method. Once the circuit design is transferred onto the board’s surface, the extra copper can be etched away using various methods.

Parts of a PCB

Various aspects are considered in manufacturing PCBs. For example, the material of the board, thickness of the board and copper, number of layers, etching technique, etc.

PCB Materials

The PCBs may be manufactured using a variety of materials. The most commonly used material is known as FR4. It is a composite fiberglass material that offers a fair amount of flexibility in a wide range of temperatures. It is a flame-retardant substance, so it is less susceptible to fire. Taking into account the benefits of FR4, it is still relatively cost-effective.  For high-frequency applications where the loss is required to be kept to the minimum and the value of dielectric needs to be considered, the PTFE-based PCBs may then be used. However, working with fluorocarbon solids such as PTFE is considerably difficult. For PCBs used in low-cost commercial products, some less costly materials are also available.

A circuit board is made up of a substrate material such as FR4; this circuit board is covered with copper on both sides. The thickness of the copper depends upon the type of application. Copper bonds firmly with FR4 material, but for PTFE material, the bonding process is somewhat complex.

PCB Materials

PCB Layers

As dense microprocessors and other boards with thousands of components are built, multilayer boards become necessary because the provision of all requisite connectivity on only two sides of the PCB becomes impossible. Manufacturing process management and consistency demand much more precision for multilayer printed circuit boards.

The boards are created by combining much thinner single sheets. With the rise in the number of layers, each panel needs to become thinner. The board is treated with heat to process the bonding material to fix the various layers together.

If not properly constructed, large multilayer boards may exhibit a particular warp on them. Wrapping can happen if a power or ground plane is located on one of the inner layers where more surface area is without copper.

PCB Vias

PCB vias, often called holes, are required to link numerous layers of PCB together at various points. Although the SMT devices are soldered on top of the board surface, holes may also be required to make it easier to install the leaded components on the PCB. Similarly, there are plated through holes that are used to link the power and ground layers with other layers. On the other hand, some holes only exist within the inner layers. These are called blind vias, and they are drilled in the relevant layers before the layers are joined together.  Drilling in these complex PCBs is carried out using computer numerical control (CNC) machines.

PCB Soldering and Silk Screen

Once a PCB is soldered, the area not to be soldered must be covered by a sheet of so-called solder resist. Adding this coating helps avoid unnecessary short circuits. The resistant is usually a silicone film that protects the board from solder and other contamination. The solder resist’s color is usually deep green or red. Exposed board areas are traditionally plated with solder substances to allow leaded or SMT components to be soldered to the board easily. Occasionally, for edge connections, gold plating is used. Since the gold doesn’t deteriorate easily, it gives reasonable conductivity and enables good communication at a low cost.

After the initial development process of the board, a silkscreen created by the PCB CAD software is used for applying various markings on the board surface. These markings include instructional texts, component labels, and symbols and logos, etc. These markings assist in defining the board and mark the location of the parts to help locate faults.


PCB Prototype

The production phase of PCBs is an integral part of electronics manufacturing. It is usually best to create a sample before committing to full production as part of the manufacturing phase. A PCB prototype needs to be developed carefully before commencing full-scale production. The prototype specifications must remain as similar as possible to the final PCB product to ensure that minimal modifications are required at the end.

Things to Consider in PCB Manufacturing

When looking for the manufacturer for your PCB design, you should make sure that the maker is consistent in the quality it delivers. Look for online reviews as they can help a lot in many cases. Some aspects to consider before choosing the PCB manufacturer are listed below.

The final PCB board is manufactured according to the design specification, and there are no errors. The board is of the proper size, as specified in the design file. If a PCB has multiple layers, then the holes and vias are accurately drilled through all layers. Make sure that the PCB boards pass the bare board test, this test checks for the continuity of the tracks before the soldering of the components. Ensure that the board has minimum warping or bending even though some wrapping may be attributed to the board’s inherent design. Make sure that the quality of the manufacturing remains consistent and does not decline after the initial order.

An electronic equipment vendor must ensure that a PCB manufacturer is compliant with the points mentioned earlier because a single error in PCB may destroy the equipment and even jeopardize the vendor’s business.

Additionally, look out for brokers. Many brokers are often disguised as PCB suppliers who simply act as a middleman between the company and the client. In most cases, the quality of orders booked through the brokers is not guaranteed. However, certain brokers may secure a profitable order, but in general, the safest thing to do is to deal with the manufacturer directly.

Design According to Requirements

It is an excellent practice to make the design requirement checklist. The first concern is whether the PCB Manufacturers can comply with the requirements. In essence, the manufacturer should accept a wide variety of format files. It should be able to produce a board with the desired specifications, For example, the number of layers, type of substrate material for the board, the quality of the copper, the clearance between the tracks, tolerances, etc.

Cooperative and Responsive

The responsiveness of a manufacturer is a factor of utmost importance. The company should be willing to collaborate and to develop a partnership. Proper communication is critical in ensuring that the product is designed correctly. If a PCB manufacturer deals with PCB assembly as well as PCB design, then the whole production process can be accelerated because everything can be done in one place. In a cooperative partnership, conflicts can be addressed quickly, input on the systems and productivity can be given, and in the end, all sides benefit equally.


Cost is an essential consideration for PCB manufacturing. The manufacturing cost increases with the increase in the complexity of the PCB design. Cost-cutting is part of effectively producing a PCB, but it must be ensured that the reduction of cost does not affect the quality of the product. Although the lowest price is clearly a significant factor in every decision, we should always balance the cost and quality such that the product is of higher quality while still being relatively cheaper.

Quick Delivery

Occasionally, the production of PCBs is not constrained by time. Still, the majority of PCB assembly firms need PCB boards in a set period of time. Achieving these deadlines is a significant consideration that should be weighed when choosing a PCB producer. Although it is useful to be able to rely on a PCB supplier to follow the deadlines, it is also valuable to have the opportunity to produce the boards faster and deliver them quickly. However, for the faster turnaround, the cost is usually higher. It should be made sure that the turnaround time is not too short because it may also lead to manufacturing defects and various other design mistakes.

Order Quantity

It is reasonable to compare the PCB maker’s capability to the possible volumes of printed circuit boards that need to be delivered. There are various kinds of orders a manufacturer may need to fulfill, for example, an order for a limited amount of test PCBs, an order for a small production run, or an order for a massive number of PCBs with a quick turnaround. It is essential to assess the PCB supplier’s capability to realize the required order. Companies set up to make massive amounts of PCBs for big production runs would not be able to handle small volumes. Conversely, a small corporation usually set up to produce sample PCBs or tiny production quantities could quickly be overloaded by large orders. Selecting the right PCB manufacturer is not always easy. However, it is of vital interest to every PCB assembly or electronics equipment maker.

PCB Testing

Quality PCB manufacturers would inspect the boards rigorously. The manufacturer may test the random samples of the PCBs to check for compliance. If the testing is required, then make sure that the specific producer has the ability to perform different tests. One such test is a bare board test where copper tracks’ continuity is verified before the components’ assembly.

Material Compliance

Some low-priced manufacturers may not have a stringent procurement process, resulting in buying materials from low-cost sources, causing different batches of boards to have inconsistent quality. It is essential for some businesses to know where the raw materials for the manufacturing of PCBs come from and whether or not the rules regulating the use of different dangerous chemicals, such as the usage of lead, mercury, cadmium, and a few other fire-resistant materials are followed. Ensure that the manufacturer supplies PCBs with UL safety compliance certificate and the supplier conforms with the following standards:

Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)

This legislation has long been in place and controls the usage and acceptable amount of dangerous substances in the electronics produced around the globe.

Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH)

This European initiative examines the chemicals and materials used for electronics production. Furthermore, the environmental and population-related impacts of these materials are analyzed.

Conflict Materials

For any corporation operating in or providing the United States, this legislation may be of considerable significance. It is a policy that aims to increase visibility in the supply chain of raw materials obtained from conflict areas such as East Congo.


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PCB Electronic Assembly https://swimbi.com/pcb-electronic-assembly/ Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:05:18 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=493 PCB Assembly:How Electronic Components are Assembled on PCBs Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are now an integral part of everyday life ...

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PCB Assembly:How Electronic Components are Assembled on PCBs

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are now an integral part of everyday life across various industries, including Industrial, Medical, Automotive, Rail, Marine, and Security electronics. There are multiple aspects of electronic assembly such as the assembling of flexible PCB circuits, using thermal substrates for boards, producing PCBs with blind and buried vias, quality of the electronic components, selecting manufacturers and distributors for the parts, storage of moisture and temperature-sensitive components, and using different assembling technologies such as through-hole and surface-mount technology.

Modern PCB assembly facilities are equipped with state-of-the-art machines and incorporate both surface-mount and through-hole assembling technologies. These facilities offer different service levels – from supplying PCB prototypes to the manufacturing of complex, multi-technology printed circuit boards. Characteristics of contemporary electronic assembly include automatic pick and place lines for SMT devices, Conventional assembly by hand, automated optical inspection, lead-free wave soldering, ICT and ATE electrical tests, conformal coating, and potting and encapsulation.

There are various methods for assembling electronics, and every supplier has a specialized process. In this article, we have compiled some of the steps of the printed circuit board assembly. Only once the model has been validated, prototyped, and checked will PCB assembly begin. Usually, an electronic assembly comprises of the following stages:

  1. Stenciling for Applying Solder Paste on PCBs.
  2. Selection and Placement of Components.
  3. Reflow Soldering.
  4. Manual Soldering of PTH devices.
  5. Inspection and Testing of PCBs.
  6. Washing of PCBs.
  7. Packaging of Assembled Boards.

Stenciling for Applying Solder Paste on PCBs

Solder paste stenciling is similar to the silkscreen stenciling technique. In silkscreen stenciling, a mask is laid over the surface where you want to apply the ink, whereas, in solder paste stenciling, a template stencil is used for the application of the paste to particular areas of a PCB. The stencil process starts with either a single PCB or a bigger PCB, with the circuit patterned several times to make the process a little faster. On each pad where a part is put, a small dab of solder paste is added. The stencil is placed over the board for smaller-scale assembly, and the paste with a metal squeegee is spread over the stencil.

A solder paste is typically a metal alloy combing different percentages of tin, copper, and silver. Pastes generally have an expiry date and are needed to be kept in a specific temperature range. Flux may lose its strength if stored n unfavorable conditions. Flux alters the metal’s surface friction as it is in a liquid state, helping it move through the joints. Solder paste is available in two types, one is lead-free solder paste, and another is leaded solder paste. Electronics circuit boards supplied to Europe must use lead-free solder paste due to European Union rules and regulations. Otherwise, the leaded paste is more flexible and more comfortable to use.

Different computer applications are used to design PCBs, such as Altium Designer, Autodesk Eagle, and Dip Trace. The program generates several layer files used by the PCB maker to generate the final PCB.  Two layers are essential for making stencils: the top paste layer and the bottom paste layer. A stencil fabricator uses these two layers to carve out the stencils from thin sheets of stainless steel through a high-power CO2 laser.

Stenciling can also be done by hand if the PCB assembly is carried out on a smaller scale. The stencil is carefully lined up over the board by hand in the manual method, and then solder paste is applied. The paste is applied evenly onto a stencil using metal scrapers such as putty knives. There are automatic stenciling machines. These machines are very complex pieces of equipment, but they make stenciling a lot easier in large production runs.Placement of Components

Selection and Placement of Components


The components are mounted over the PCB after the paste was added to the board. The paste helps temporarily secure the components on the board. The component placement can be achieved either by hand or by a machine. One way to manually place components is by using tweezers. You Pick the component up using a tweezer and place it one by one on the board. Placing components by hand is an entirely accurate process because, during reflow, the liquid solder can move the parts to their correct place due to its surface tension. But, on an industrial scale, working manually is not plausible. It gets harder to position components after a couple of hours easily. And the placement of small-sized SMT devices quickly becomes challenging. On an industrial scale, this process is handled by large machines. These machines are called pick and place (PNP) machines. They are especially useful for placing SMT components PNP unit is a robotic assembly platform that selects a component using a vacuum, rotates it to the proper position, and then places it on a PCB. Setting up a computer to build the assembly takes a few hours, but it is efficient once it works. PNP machines can build hundreds of boards in a lot less time. In industrial-scale warehouses, a conveyor belt carries the board from an automatic paste applying system through the PNP machines.

Reflow Soldering

It is crucial to reflow the paste after pick-and-place to build a stable connection. The PCBs are mounted on a conveyor belt passing steadily inside an oven, heating the boards adequately at about 250 °C to melt the solder. It experiences multiple temperature zones as the board passes through the oven, enabling it to warm up and cool down at a regulated pace. The paste is like sticky glue. Although the board steadily travels through the reflow oven, the pieces remain in place. The reflow device is sort of like a baking oven. The board’s temperature is raised to around 250 °C (480 °F), at which point the paste turns into liquid metal. When the board leaves the reflow oven, it quickly cools, soldering all of the components in order. There are various stages of reflow soldering. There are small grey blobs of solder paste on the different pads in the beginning. Then the flux becomes runnier inside the paste and starts to produce droplets.

Initially, the solder is in solid form, Then the solder begins to melt, and the melting solder’s surface friction allows the melting solder to leave droplets of solder on pads of PCB  In reflow, the solder can move the parts to some extent. Some components end up entirely out of place and require manual adjustment later. The solder tends to push and pull components slightly. This phenomenon is beneficial during reflow because the small misalignments are corrected without any interventions. Conversely, if one end of the component is pulled faster than the other, with very tiny bits, the effect, called tombstoning, may cause a part to stand on one leg. It leads the board to have a functional flaw. Finally, the board comes out of the oven, and it is cooled down, the solder solidifies, and the components are fully soldered to the PCB.

Reflow Soldering for two-sided PCBs

In various assemblies, electronic parts are located on two sides of the PCB. In these cases, the sheet with the least and shortest components is first stenciled and reflowed. It is stenciled and reflowed once more on the other side when the PCB comes out of the oven after reflow. The metal’s surface tension is extreme and keeps everything in place. During the pick and place process in larger plants, different parts of the board may be glued to ensure that the components do not shift their location during reflow, especially in more complicated assemblies.

Manual Soldering of PTH devices

After reflow, any plated through-hole (PTH) parts are manually picked up by a technician and soldered to the board by hand. Using a wave soldering procedure in the broader production facility, where the board is passed over a standing wave of liquid solder that clings to part leads and any visible metal on the PCB, the soldering of through-hole parts may be accomplished. However, SMD (surface mount devices) have become an industry standard. The use of the PTH component has become limited; therefore, small and medium-range facilities prefer to hand solder any PTH components

Inspection and Testing of PCBs

The next step in the assembly of PCBs is optical checking. The optical inspection identifies issues with the components such as the wrong resistor, missing capacitor, and short circuits. The automated optical inspection (AOI) machine works very fast, almost in real-time. The AOI requires various high-power cameras at various angles to see different aspects of the solder joints or fillets.  Light is reflected differently from poorly soldered fillets compared to an adequately soldered one; therefore, the AOI uses different colored LEDs to illuminate and examine any link, with great precision and at a very high pace. Optical inspection checks ensure all of the correct components are on the board, in the right places, with correct solder fillets and no short circuits caused by extra solder between adjacent pins. After the inspection, the board is prepared for testing to ensure it does what it is supposed to do.

Testing takes a lot of time. In extensive assembling facilities, thousands of boards are made every day. To speed up the testing process, automatic test fixtures are used. Test fixtures are temporary electrical contacts used to verify the controllers’ voltage output, the predicted voltages on individual pins, and giving different orders to the test board to ensure that it reacts appropriately. More measures are taken to load code and validate the performance on boards that need programming or additional tuning.

More expansive facilities use a flying probe or advanced bed of nail fixtures to verify any board’s link for consistency before powering the board. For more sophisticated, pricey items, these larger fixtures are appropriate.

Washing of PCBs

Different processing stages leave residues on the PCBs Soldering leaves a slight amount of flux on the board regularly. This flux residue remains sticky with time and may turn slightly acidic, contributing to solder joints becoming damaged.  To avoid the sticking of this residue, the PCBs are washed after the initial assembling process. The boards are cleaned using a machine similar to a dishwasher. This high temperature, high speed, and all stainless-steel dishwasher utilize deionized water to eliminate all contamination from the development stages. A closed-loop scheme is used for the parts washer.  After cleaning, the wastewater is stored in a separate container, and conductivity is automatically measured. The washing is assumed to be complete if its resistance is very high, then the wastewater is recycled through filters.

For DIY purposes, there is no need to uses expensive machines. The critical ingredient for cleaning electronics is using deionized water. Deionized water is ion-free water. Instead, the water does not kill the circuitry; it is the ions that cause various tiny parts of the device to provide electricity. It is very harmful to humans to drink because DI water does not contain ions. Although it’s OK to handle DI water, consuming, as it allows your body to lose ions quickly, DI water can do considerable damage to your body. Since DI water readily absorbs ions, the interior of the dishwasher is entirely made of stainless steel. Every other metal will disintegrate rapidly. A cotton swab or a brush with any isopropyl alcohol can also perform very well with just a handful of PCBs. A fan or compressed air is useful for extracting any leftover water.

Packaging of Assembled Boards

The packaging is the final stage of the electronic circuit board assembly. When the PCB batch is clean and dry, it will be wrapped up, where every PCB is thermally sealed into ESD plastic individually.  Picking and packing orders ought to be as quick as possible in a broad industrial environment.  Most of the products are labeled using barcodes for easy identification. The product name, SKU, and a batch ID are included in the bar code label to track problems. When the PCB has been thoroughly assembled, it is forwarded to the shipment floor for distribution.

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Contract Electronic Assembly https://swimbi.com/contract-electronic-assembly/ Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:04:37 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=491 The electronic contract assembly is a collection of services for designing circuits, fabrication of PCBs, assembly of electronic components on ...

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The electronic contract assembly is a collection of services for designing circuits, fabrication of PCBs, assembly of electronic components on the PCBs, subsystem assembly of modular equipment, box build assembly, inspection and testing, packaging, and delivery Manufacturing of contract assemblies can be used either as a complement to or as a substitute for in-house manufacturing capabilities.

It is economical to get your electronic products manufactured by electronic assembly contractors. The perfect electronic assembly contract will prove to be an enormous advantage for your business. It is better to build a business partnership with contract assembly providers that offer economical services with quality product assembly. It is advisable to ensure that the cost-effectiveness of the assembly does not affect the reliability of the production; otherwise, the devices may end up falling short of the expectations. To prevent these issues, it is better to contract with a business that strictly follows manufacturing and assembly standards and uses high-quality electronic components in the assembly. The following kinds of manufacturers will provide more competent services and better-quality products at significantly less turnaround time.

PCB Assembly

Electronic assembling technology is constantly evolving, and the size of PCB is reducing. Today, customers seek electronic products that are both highly lightweight and portable, albeit more complicated and practical. PCBs must get smaller in order for these devices to perform correctly and effectively, thus being able to accommodate even more complex electrical contacts and miniature parts. Designing and installing these small PCBs can be difficult, time-consuming, and quite expensive for electronics assembly manufacturers. You will want to contract with experienced electronic assembly manufacturers for you to satisfy client requests, remain competitive, and expand your business. Professional and competent contract partners will help you navigate the challenges in the outsourcing of electronic assembly. The supplier will use high-tech equipment to enable quicker, more reliable assembly of PCBs.

Systems Assembly

Electronic assembly contractors can assist businesses in dealing with systems assembly. By selecting an established contract assembly manufacturer that is acquainted with all the requirements of device assembly, you can receive tailored strategies that can better handle your business’s supply chain needs. Irrespective of the complexity of your requirements, an appropriate contract assembly supplier will provide greater satisfaction and better performance. Other benefits of partnering up with contract assemblers include design optimizations, manufacturing and assembly according to specifications, box build assembly at various levels, customized routing and cabling, inspection and testing, and the proper documentation to assist you in operating the device properly.

Design and Build Assembly

There are suppliers of electronic assembly contracts that only provide assembly facilities. Although this will allow you to increase the pace at which a fully engineered device is eventually made, it cannot help you improve the assembled equipment’s performance. In design-conscious electronics assembly, the manufacturer may suggest improvements in the circuit and PCB design, making the end product compact and efficient. These design considerations can reduce the cost of components and make the final product functional and more comfortable to operate. In the process of assembly, the contract supplier can identify the potential flaws and try to fix them before the assembly. Furthermore, a wide range of tests will be performed to check the assembled electronics’ functionality, offering design evolution opportunities over time.

Electronic Contract Assembly Applications

Hiring a company to facilitate for contract assembly production offers several benefits. Electronic Contract assembly Production has traditionally been able to reduce supply chain costs significantly, slashing them in half in certain instances. Electronic Contract assembly has, in some situations, allowed enterprises to function without requiring on-site assembly facilities. It enabled companies to focus on designing better products by providing more resources for specialized tasks. Many businesses can opt to outsource their well-established long-standing products to a contract manufacturer, allowing for a greater emphasis on internal operations for higher complexity new products that may have higher margins. Other significant advantages of outsourcing are manufacturing flexibility and access to more specialized outside expertise.

The contract assembly is popular among the sellers of high-volume devices such as mobile phones, hardware for telecommunications, laptops, vehicles, and a range of other consumer electronics. In terms of cost-effectiveness, suppliers of instrumentation goods, medical equipment, LED lighting devices, and fiber optic components are gradually considering contract assembly.  A contract assembler may offer a range of services suitable for different applications. These services can include designing products, creating and testing prototype, high volume production, worldwide supply chain, after-sales support, and repair services.

Performance reliability and following standard manufacturing practices are enormously central in the assembling of products, especially in the process of mass manufacturing. Contract assembling facilities guarantee that the product’s quality is high and performance is consistent; this sophistication level is only possible with advanced equipment and trained operators. The dedicated facilities ensure that the electronic assembly components are procured from trustworthy sources, and the components are installed on the board correctly. The importance of contract assembly increases exponentially for the production of high-reliability devices such as medical and defense equipment. The devices cannot afford failure when they are operational.

Why choose Contract Assembly

Generally, the contract electronic assembly providers have years of experience in the business of highly complicated assemblies.  They follow stringent production standards, promising higher quality products. They have state of the art PCB fabrication and component placement machines. The tiniest of the components can be assembled with very high density and accuracy. An electronic assembly service involves the manufacturing and production of PCBs and the placement of various electronic components. There are various techniques for making PCBs; each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. A contract assembly supplier can better decide which method of production is suitable for a specific application. The most commonly used PCB fabrication methods are employ either surface mount technology (SMT) or plated through-hole (PTH).

In the SMT assembly process, the components are attached directly to the surface of the PCB with the help of the solder paste. SM assembly enables the incorporation of the small-sized components allowing the board size to decrease and assembly density to increase. Alternatively, TH assembly is an older technique; this technique is still applicable because some components are not available in SMT form. In TH assembly, the components are inserted into the holes drilled on the board; the insertion occurs with the help of the metallic wires extending from the component package. Through-hole assembly is only used when the surface-mount assembly may be either unfeasible or inaccessible.

Contract Assembly Capabilities

Contract Assembly Capabilities

Contract Manufacturing produces good quality electronic assemblies and devices. The ISO standards-accredited vendors are usually trustworthy, delivering PCBs on UL-approved laminates. In order to ensure conformity with the new requirements, these manufacturers hire IPC-certified specialists. The decision to pick an electronic contract assembler must be taken by carefully accessing the capability of the assembler to produce complicated high-density assemblies, package the assembly in a wide range of box builds, procure raw material in a transparent process, test the product sufficiently, manage multiple dedicated production lines, and RoHS compliance.

Additional facilities provided by a contract assembly supplier may include: Autonomous pick-and-place machines for surface-mount devices; support for micro-ball-grid-array (μBGA), the dual in-line package (DIP), and other SMT footprints; testing and verification of footprints; multi-zone compressed air convection reflow soldering; support for lead-free soldering; wave soldering; automatic optical inspection (AOI) after reflow, the capability to assemble through-hole components manually; Repairing of the SMT devices; ultrasonic cleansing of residuals; and box build assembly of final packages.

Bidding for Contract

If the bid-offer is for the procurement of a particular object or a device, most firms have basic requirements that must be met while bidding. The contract assembler needs to meet such requirements. Furthermore, any offer made as an official government deal would have to obey many rules and guidelines that the business’s contracting department needs to deal with.  Bidding requirements have to be published. Suppose they are written on a particular component, product, tool, or system. In that case, the writer will have difficulty explaining another unit that may offer better performance but may not follow the desired requirements. One approach used is to compose bidding requirements so that any established contract assembly supplier will not fulfill all of them. This avoids claims that the writer has a specific vendor in mind and, if that seems necessary, causes all offers to be tossed out. It also permits any appropriate unit to be justified. This approach would result in a series of bid criteria on which each object is in the company’s best interests. The writer leaves some sign of conflict of interest or favoritism vulnerable to reprimand, lawsuits, or firing.

Contract Assembly Capabilities

Efficient Delivery

Selecting a single contract manufacturing company can extensively analyze the design, preventing you from negotiating, and coordinating with multiple people at different facilities. Efficiencies in going from one stage to another to have a competitive deal may be taken advantage of by one single provider delivering the entire spectrum of services. The whole structure is carefully tested by an electronics contract assembly provider who can decide the right packaging and shipping options for your project. The packaging is an essential part of the method of assembly, but low importance is either ignored or provided.

It is necessary to obtain the correct packaging materials for safe shipping, particularly if the assembly has to be shipped to other countries. You will save money and prevent headaches with a contract assembly production provider comfortable with the international method and mindful of the delivery logistics. There may be possible downtime for several hands in your building as we wait for sections or other project phases to be finished. You will guarantee that your project is delivered in the most productive way possible by performing your project with a single electronic contract assembly provider, saving you time and cash in delivery and manufacturing delays.

The benefits of Contract Assembly

It is possible to outline the advantages for original electronics manufacturers (OEMs) by hiring contractors such as electronic manufacturing service (EMS) suppliers. Contract work enables them to: decrease development time-to-market and time-to-volume for their products; lower overhead costs, decrease capital spending and other fixed costs; enhance inventory control; access world-class processing, engineering, and distribution capacities; export the same commodity worldwide through the use of complementary manufacturing facilities; and focus on core manufacturing capabilities.

The contract assembly manufacturers provide custom enclosure fabrication services at state-of-the-art fabrication facilities. Other services offered by these facilities include designing, building, testing, and installing subassemblies. Additionally, the contract manufacturers may provide cable routing and wiring installation along with assembling all kinds of components. Some assemblies require the placement of customized components; a contract assembly manufacturer is typically able to provide modified component packages that can fit on a specific PCB. The assembly contractors uphold outstanding quality levels to provide practical, top-quality equipment for all consumer orders. The firm executes an exhaustive sequence of in-process testing and evaluation to mitigate the likelihood of final assembly errors on any project.

Electronic Design Assembly

Examples of criteria to be defined for an assembly contract are the efficiency, stability, durability, noise, and precision of the device. When working with computer-driven devices, access and processing speeds are fundamental parameters.  It is the contract assembly manufacturer’s responsibility to select equipment that follows the specifications closely. The designers then develop a description of the equipment specifications for the assembly. The next stage in assembling electronics is the comprehensive design stage. The design phase is the part where the equipment is installed and tested for performance and reliability. The producer guarantees that all the functions are operational and the expenditure is fulfilled.

A flow diagram is a graphical sketch used to demonstrate the interconnections of all elements of the assembly.  It is more complicated than the illustration of the block showing all the wiring and cabling. Flow diagrams must show the interconnection of every component to the additional subsystems. The contract assembler also provides cabling and connections plan configurations. All necessary documentation from suppliers is recorded. The assembly supplier assists the client in laying out requirements clearly and precisely.

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Assembly of Electronic Components https://swimbi.com/assembly-of-electronic-components/ Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:03:58 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=489 An electricity-controlled device is known as an electronic component. The electronic components are available in a range of shapes and ...

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An electricity-controlled device is known as an electronic component. The electronic components are available in a range of shapes and sizes to carry out various electrical operations. So, a wide range of components is used for electronic devices. This article lists a few of the fundamental features related to electronic components and discusses how these characteristics are essential in the assembly of electronic components.

 integrated circuit

Passive and Active Components

A passive component does not provide any sort of signal gain or power amplification. Examples of passive components may include inductors, resistors, capacitors, and memristors. Since the gain of passive components remains less than one, they cannot intensify or oscillate an input signal. Simply put, a passive device can only multiply an incoming single with a value that is always less than one.

Active components can manipulate input signals by controlling voltage and current levels. They can perform a switching action in the circuit by amplifying and interpreting a signal in various ways. Examples of active components include integrated circuits (ICs), transistors, diodes, and silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs). Active electronics components are mainly comprised of semiconductor devices. An active device can have a gain of more than one.

Discrete and Integrated Components

An individual component operating independently within a circuit is known as a discrete component. A capacitor is an example of a discrete component; it stores the charge when current passes through it. A discrete component can either be a passive or active device.

Alternatively, an integrated circuit (IC) is created when several discrete components are combined, interconnected in a particular way, and packaged in a specialized enclosure to perform a specific function. Common examples of an IC are microcontrollers, microprocessors, and FPGAs.

Connection Types of the Components

The electronic components can generally be connected to the board in one of two ways, through-hole (TH) components or surface-mount (SM) components. Through-hole components have leads that are inserted in the holes drilled in the PCB. At the same time, SM components are placed directly on the surface of the PCB. High-density integrated circuit assemblies prefer using SM components. High-density IC assemblies are available with pin-grid arrays with many rows of pins located on the component’s bottom. In SM devices, leadless parts are often possible where no metal connectors pop out of the components’ body.

Embedded Components

The PCBs manufacturers are increasingly using embedded components, especially for producing consumer electronics. Mostly the passive components and the ICs are embedded within a PCB. The embedded components can be integrated into wearable devices, and development costs and production loads are projected to be minimized. In particular, there are three embedding approaches to passive components.

Embedding Passive Components makes it possible to embed every currently available part. Since holes in the board are made to carry the materials, the board may get thicker. There is no significant decrease in cost.

Thinner boards are made feasible by embedding advanced thin passive components, and these components may be as thin as 100μm or less. The resin encloses these thin components to securely embed them as the board layers are assembled, virtually eliminating the need for making holes in the board.

The printing of Film components simplifies the packaging stage and reduces the assembly cost because many film components are produced in batches. The circuit’s complexity reduces because the number of solder joints is decreased, providing improved joint durability, compact product, and less environmental impacts.

discrete component

Challenges in Component Assembly

The electronic assembly process has become specialized in recent years. Electronic has become very sophisticated. The primary stages of manufacturing an electronic product are idea, design, plan, and produce. First, the specifications of an idea are laid out, and initial planning is done. Second, the design stage specifies the device functionality. Third, the planning stage involves selecting appropriate components and their position on the board, routing traces to connect different components, and deciding connectors for multiple PCBs.

With the increase in electronic equipment complexity, electronic design automation (EDA) has been developed to assist in the design, manufacturing, and assembly of electronics. Today, electronic products are expected to be more compact, high speed, less power consuming, lightweight, and rich in functionality.

Previously, most circuit boards were used for a single function, such as processor board or power supply board. Meanwhile, every PCB only had a definite role within the overall design; developing and manufacturing were markedly easy. low volume PCB assembly,Through Hole components require wider pin-to-pin distance and relatively greater hole diameter limiting its use in high-density component assemblies.

Pin-to-pin pitches started to shrink with the introduction of surface mounting technologies. The surface-mounted components offered lesser foot-prints and higher pin counts. Trace widths and clearances reduced, making assemblies very compact. With the continued advancement in integration and interconnection, more extensive subsystems can be mounted on an individual chip in a compact package.

A variety of these compact packages can be combined and mounted on a minimal board to produce an incredibly complex intricate system. These days, multiple sections with very different functionality can exist on a single board. These sections may include a GHz RF section, a section for analog and digital components, and a power supply section.  PCB designers and manufacturers use ball grid arrays (BGAs) due to their small size, improved performance, and lower power loss. The BGAs are denser than quad flat packages (QFPs), and a micro-packaged μBGA-IC contains thousands of pin-outs.

Using these high-density packages contributes to very dense and complex structures, all crammed together using micro-via and advanced box build technologies on a multi-layer PCB. For component assemblers, PCB designers, and manufacturers, all these specifications present significant challenges.

Process of Electronic Component Assembly

The conventional component assembly approach connects the components with PCBs by inserting their leads into holes in the PCB. The leads are then soldered to the PCB, providing both mechanical support and electrical connection.  Later, the surface mount component assembly enabled the utilization of micro-electronics with VLSI IC packages containing huge pin-out numbers.  Surface-mount equivalents of all the components are not available, however. So, the PCBs still contain both types of components.

It is possible to manually put together a PCB assembly. However, specialized machines that render the assembly process automated, fast, and secure are more common. Because the final assembly comprises several different kinds of components with different specifications, it is crucial to carefully choose an assembly process based on cost-effectiveness and efficiency. A standard component assembly would contain a range of dual-in-line packages (DIPs), various connectors, and other discrete components such as diodes, capacitors, resistors, and transistors. For their legs to be mounted, all these components have standard hole spacing needed. Simply put, the component assembly process comprises the subsequent phases:

  • Collect the components according to the requirements listed in the bill of materials (BOM).
  • Get the components ready for placement on the board, e.g., arranging the leads for insertion.
  • PCB cleaning by wiping or rinsing in the water using industrial cleaners.
  • Recording the measurements of boards and components.
  • Placement of components in separate plates in an automated assembly line.
  • Placemen of SMT devices and insertion of PTH devices.
  • Mass soldering of the components such as reflow soldering.
  • Cleaning and Removal of excess flux.
  • Placement of heavy or sensitive components can either not survive high soldering temperature or cannot be handled automatically due to their weight.
  • Manual Soldering.
  • Cleaning Residual Materials.
  • Inspection and testing;
  • Application of conformal coatings and finishing.
  • Storage and warehousing.

This list of different assembling stages is only for reference, and an assembly manufacturer may change the sequence according to the requirements. Depending on the component’s nature, there might be a few occasional variations in the assembly process.

Electronic Component Assembly

The environment of the Assembly Facility

Define the specific electrostatic protected areas in which sensitive parts are handled. To neutralize any positive or negative charges, utilize air ionizers that blast ionized air into the working environment. All goods supplied from vendors must be delivered in sealed conductive containers. The ground resistance, the person, the footwear, and the floor, must not exceed 35 megaohms.

The components, assemblies, and finished products, which are ESD-sensitive, should be labeled with the ESD susceptibility symbol. The ionization produces negative and positive ions drawn to the surface of a charged material, resulting in the neutralization of the charge. The use of suitable packaging materials can protect the product against the charge and reduce the generation of charge caused by any product movement within the enclosure.

It is essential to use anti-static floor material, specifically in the areas where human movement is required. Suitable floor materials may reduce the build-up of charge on furniture and other equipment. ESD-sensitive devices should be labeled with the ESD-susceptible logo. This logo is necessary for all ESD-sensitive systems such as discrete components, ICs, PCBs, and assemblies. Similarly, the objects offering ESD protection must be labeled with the logo of the ESD-protective substance.

Additionally, there are ESD testing apparatus. It is essential for testing but does not provide ESD protection. This apparatus includes footwear indicators, wrist straps, and resistivity meters.

Precautions for Handling of Components

When treating parts, the following measures should be observed:

  • Sensitive components like ICs must be picked up by the package’s non-conductive area instead of metallic leads. These leads are most susceptible to ESD.
  • When handling PCBs, make sure that you touch the board by the edges, avoid solder, and any other conductive surface because some sensitive component may find a path through the conductive surface.
  • Remove any non-conductive objects from the workspace to avoid charge-separation in ESD-sensitive components caused by the electric field. Otherwise, the components might be destroyed if it comes into contact with a conductive object in the presence of an electric field.
  • Suppose static generating materials are indispensable for the task. In that case, the workplace must be organized to allow more generous spacing between sensitive boards and static generating materials.
  • Shoe grounders are necessary for activities performed in standing position, whereas for seated activities, a wrist-strap is advisable. It is also essential to inspect wrist straps and shoe grounders regularly to ensure they are functioning correctly.

Wrist straps used by people seated at work are useful for ESD control. They can be worn securely touching the skin and connected to the common ground. The resistor limits the current by providing a controlled and slow drain of the built-up charge.

Shoe grounders are built to connect the body to a conductive floor or mat via the socks. They are adequate for operations performed in a stand-up position but are not very efficient when seated. The moisture in the socks provides a complete electrical connection to the outside of the socks. There is no need to remove the socks for use with shoe grounders.

Electronic Component

Handling of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Components

The human body can generate static charges of about 25,000 volts. These build-ups can discharge through an electrically grounded body or device quickly. The high voltage spike arising from this discharge destroys the terminals of ICs.  Moving humans, low humidity, insufficient grounding, unshielded wires, weak joints, and moving equipment are the most frequent electrostatic discharge sources (ESD).

ESD of 10,000-25,000 Volts is not detrimental to human beings. Instead, one ampere current at 230 Volts mains power supply is fatal. The current supplied by ESD voltages are only in the range of micro-amperes, which is not hazardous for human beings. The human body’s static electricity is strong enough to destroy a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) if you hit CMOS input pins with your fingertips.

A grounding harness should be attached to the ground by the individual holding MOS equipment. During the handling of high voltage components, like power supplies, anti-static straps must not be worn. Anti-static mats constructed with rubber or any other anti-static substances should be used in the work areas.  After installation of all other components, place MOS IC on the boards.  The PCB terminals should have conductive clips or tape mounted on them.

It is required that workers operating MOS equipment wear anti-static clothes. Workplace tabletops and trays must be non-conductive. The soldering iron should be grounded. When the power is ON, do not connect or disconnect the MOS device from test sockets. Voltage surges often occur due to the switching of relays. If the device’s power supply is off, signals must not be applied to the device’s input terminals. New MOS terminals must be attached to either the ground or supply voltage.

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Electronic Assembly Manufacturing https://swimbi.com/electronic-assembly-manufacturing/ Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:03:18 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=487 Electronic devices are a mixture of linked electrical and electronic parts to establish a specifically designed purpose. In the early ...

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electronic partsElectronic devices are a mixture of linked electrical and electronic parts to establish a specifically designed purpose. In the early days, the electronic equipment was assembled by wiring manually or by soldering in a point-to-point method. Later, with the introduction of smaller electronic parts, replaceability enhanced, modular architecture became common, and the time it took to manufacture electronics assembly reduced considerably. Furthermore, due to increased replaceability, it becomes easy to repair malfunctioned equipment.

The PCB establishes the physical basis for the assembly of electronic components and the electrical link between the various parts. For utilizing printed circuit boards, there are several valid reasons, some of which are as follows:

With a related reduction in weight, the scale of the device assembly is decreased. The positioning of components is set, making it simpler to locate and manage electronic devices and systems. Minimal technological expertise and preparation are needed by PCB repairing staff. Incorrect or short-circuited wiring incidents can be reduced.

Development in the Manufacturing of PCBs

Dr. Paul Eisler is also considered the Founder of the technology of printed circuit boards.  He recommended copper coated insulation material in the form of a sheet as a base material for PCB production. His research gives rise to an industrial manufacturing system and a PCB electronic assembly technique.

Over time, new processes such as photo film lamination, solder masking with solder paste, film resist, legend printing, and CNC drilling has been introduced in electronic assembly manufacturing.  The development of multilayer and rigid-flexible PCBs decreased board size dramatically. This was made possible due to advancements in blind and buried vias, plated-through-hole (PTH) interconnections, and wet chemical processes.  Advancements in surface mount technology have contributed to a range of developments in PCB materials and procedures, and there is a continuous demand for further improvement in PCB technology.

The assembly manufacturers require integrated circuits (ICs) with even more capacity.  High density interconnects structures (HDIS) is made possible by increasing the number of input-output (I / O) terminals of the ICs. Now a large number of companies are producing HDIS.  High-frequency devices perform high-speed tasks. These high-frequency PCB assemblies demand the electrical losses to be kept at a minimum.

For electronic manufactured products, PCBs have become an essential aspect. Therefore, the electronic manufacturing industry is on the rise globally. Likewise, by more carefully regulated cost-effective methods, the electronic manufacturing industry will continue to offer higher functionality with higher density, reduced cost, and improved reliability. The usage of flexible circuits is projected to grow much further. Demand is increasing for the manufacturing of environment-friendly lead-free PCBs.  The different forms of PCBs, both those already in operation and those to be produced, are likely to maintain their role as an integral component of electronics assembly.

Types of PCBs in Assembly Manufacturing

Printed Circuit Boards can be grouped according to their distinctive features and characteristics. The introduction of surface mount technology and the advancement of autonomous assembly techniques demand that the boards must be produced to stringent mechanical tolerances, even for the product that is low cost. A simplified and more comprehensible classification is used for PCBs, which is defined by two general parameters: one is the number of planes or layers that contain connection tracks, and the other is the existence or absence of plated-through-holes. It is simple to categorize PCSs by inherent characteristics of the boards. Below, the essential types of PCBs are mentioned.


Single-sided PCBs

Connection tracks are on one side of the substrate in a single-sided PCB. The side with tracks is known as the solder side, while the side contains the components, therefore known as the component side. In the manufacture of basic electronic instruments, single-side PCBs are used to keep the costs down. The single-sided PCBs are developed primarily by the process called printing and etching or by the die-cut method. In this method, the pattern of interconnected tracks is photo-engraved or machine-engraved on a die.


Double-sided PCBs

This type of PCB has connection tracks on both sides of the substrate. Double-sided PCBs have two variants, one with PTH, another without PTH.  Double-sided PTH PCB has copper traces on two sides of a laminated substrate.  The metallic wall of the hole connects two sides of the board. These kinds of boards are useful for high-density complex assemblies. These boards are significantly cost-effective. For plated through holes, various kinds of eyelets can be used for interconnections.

Multi-Layer PCBs

Multilayer PCBs combine two or more boards with a thin layer of resin-impregnated material sandwiched between each layer. Multi-layer PCBs have more than three layers. The multilayer PCB is used in circumstances where the required connection density is substantial. The multiple layers of the PCB contain high capacitance offering a robust decoupling for power supply, enabling high-speed circuits to work satisfactorily. The interior layers can be used for interconnections, and a thick, strong copper heat sink can be placed on external surfaces. It is possible to manufacture four-layer and six-layer boards with about the same simplicity as double-sided boards. Based on the complexity and the equipment used, the expense of a printed circuit board varies. Multilayer boards are no longer confined to just high-tech items; instead, their use has become widespread.

Rigid-Flex PCBs

Rigid-flex boards are mostly made up of multiple individual boards. They are three-dimensional assemblies that are flexibly connected. The rigid-flex boards enable high-density packaging.  Flexible PCB assemblies may contain boards that are single-sided, double-sided, or multi-layered.  Typically, very thin, the base material is in the region of 0.1 mm thickness.

Manufacturing of PCB Assembly

Most of the electronic assembly manufacturing processes have identical or similar necessary steps. The print and etch technique, a strictly subtractive method, is the most common PCB manufacturing procedure. Alternatively, there is an additive process called printed wiring. In this method, connection tracks are printed on the laminate using conductive material to connect components.

There is a need to consider four primary stages of the PCB assembly production process. This involves designing, production, assembly, and final testing. Following innovations in software-based development and testing procedures, the increasing sophistication of printed circuit boards lets the circuit designer look past the individual component technique. The following steps represent the design and fabrication process of PCBs.Generating Designs

Circuit Diagram

Circuit diagrams provide information about all the electronic parts and how they are connected. There are various circuit simulation applications. Using these applications, a circuit design can be thoroughly tested before being finalized. All the limitations of a circuit are analyzed before being sent to the PCB designing program. An efficient design must include all the crucial data essential for understanding the operation of the circuit. The simulation program and PCB designing program work simultaneously to ensure the design is printed completely.

Generating Designs

The circuit schematic diagram is used as a reference for the identification of electronic components and layout connections. To enhance accuracy, the resolution of the design layout is increases multiple times. However, the final printing of the design is done according to the actual measurements. The print is taken either in the form of positive or negative engraving, based on the equipment kind and the assembly suppliers’ preference. The initial PCB design would go on to define the final physical form of the end product.

Board Manufacturing

A typical PCB is made up of copper-clad substrate board; generally, the copper is on one side of the board. The laminated sheets are appropriately cut to make required sized boards. The most frequently used substrate or base material is known as FR-4.  It is an all woven glass laminated epoxy. It is generally 1.6 mm thick with a copper layer of 305 grams per square meter. The copper thickness is around 35 microns. The mechanical characteristics of FR4 include improved strength against punching and drilling, enhanced flexibility, and fire and water resistance.

Transfer of Design

The next stage in the electronics assembly manufacturing is to transfer the circuit’s initial design on the copper-clad PCB surface. The design could be transferred using a stenciling technique. The ink that serves as an etch-resist covers the copper that is needed to be kept after etching. Screen printing is limited to low precision image transfer with less strict design specifications in current PCB manufacturing facilities. A safer approach is to use a photoresist dry film susceptible to ultraviolet light (200-500 nm). The dry film is heated and placed on the board’s copper side. The resist’s development is carried out, allowing certain parts of copper to be maintained on the boards that were covered by a resist.pcb


The essence of the electronic  PCB assembly production is the etching process. To obtain intended circuit patterns, etching is performed to scrape off the copper from unwanted places. Ferric chloride is the oldest and most widely used etching substance, which oxidizes copper to form cuprous chloride. The immersion, bubble, splash, or spray technique is typically used for etching. The spray etching process is the most widespread and is pumped in high pressure from a container to the nozzles.

Drilling of Holes

Typically, mass manufacturing employs numerically operated drilling machines with multiple heads. To ensure the proper drill sizes are used, and no holes have been left out, jigs are used. On fiberglass boards, tungsten carbide or diamond-tipped drills are favored. The size of electronic components has dramatically declined in recent years. The requirement for even smaller hole diameters has increased due to the reduction in the size of electronic devices

Coatings and Finishes

Copper has superior electric conductivity characteristics with higher thermal stability. PCBs use some finishing materials for surface coatings. Generally, the surface finish is applied to shield the exposed copper tracks and pad against corrosion and other wear and tear. The coating helps ensure that the board can be soldered without damaging other components during assembly. Typically, the standard process of PCB production involves the protection of circuit traces with a masking agent called a solder mask. This solder mask is removed once the process of soldering begins. A surface finishing method would shield the areas that are not protected with a solder mask. The application of solder made from tin or lead to bare copper results in a chemical bond that prevents oxidation.  Subsequently, the PCB is immersed in a nitrogen solution that is not absorbed by the laminate; instead, it adheres to exposed metal surfaces.

Testing of Assemblies

The assembled PCBs can be tested in several ways. Bare board test and loaded board tests are two essential checks for testing PCBs. Bare board test is used for detecting any shorts between tracks and open tracks. Loaded board tests’ primary function is to analyze the defects that may have arisen during the manufacturing process. Loaded board tests also involve various other in-circuit functionality tests. The frequency of failure in dense PCBs can reach up to 20 percent; it has been noticed. In electronic assembly manufacturing, bare board checking has become mandatory.

There is an alternative additive method for manufacturing printed circuit boards in addition to the widely used printing and etching technique. There’s no copper on the substrate in this process. The copper is systematically deposited on the base laminate wherever desired, as per the circuit design.

The procedure is more complicated for the creation of double-sided PTH boards than the printing and etching system. By dipping the PCB in a stannous chloride solution, the board is sensitized then it is immersed in an acidified solution of palladium chloride. A solution of copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, and some reducing agent and additives is used for Electroless copper deposition on the holes’ walls. With the resist separated from the region where the traces are kept, the design transfer mechanism happens. The Reinforced Photoresist protects all other regions. Subsequently, after immersing the board in an electroplating solution, the uncovered track areas are electroplated with tin-lead Alloy.  All conductors required on the PCB and within the holes get plated. Finally, the surface finishing is done by coatings techniques including and not limited to solder masking, hot-air leveling, and surface protection using organic substances.

Multi-layered PCBs are manufactured by combining undrilled pre-etched copper-clad substrates. Individual panels are sandwiched together s. the combined stack is laminated to create a single multilayer board.

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Box Build Assembly https://swimbi.com/box-build-assembly/ Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:00:46 +0000 https://swimbi.com/?p=485 Defining Box Build Assembly A box build involves all electronic assembly features except the manufacturing of the printed circuit boards ...

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Defining Box Build Assembly

A box build involves all electronic assembly features except the manufacturing of the printed circuit boards (PCBs). It can be termed as a subgroup of electromechanical assembly (EMA). EMA itself is also known as the integration of systems. Some of the processes involved in box build assembly are the fabrication of the enclosures, cable routing and connections,  Assembly of Electronic Components and electronic components installation.

Integration of Systems

Systems integration is a name given to various electronic assemblies such as PCB assembly integration with sub-assemblies and modules, design of enclosure and chassis, thermal considerations, and cabling and wiring. All these processes are performed through specialized machinery, and various tests are performed.

Electromechanical Assembly

All the electronic assembly stages that require both electrical and mechanical processes to complete a task are collectively called electromechanical assembly. Usually, the term box build is used to summarize the complex process of putting together the many elements inside a single, ready-to-go package. Linking separate elements to build a reliable package that can withstand extreme conditions is the challenging task of the Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) industry. The EMS company’s experience and services are vital in deciding the quality of the final product.

Process of Box Build

The box build approach is unique to each project and, at each level, will require different degrees of sophistication. It may involve merely placing within an enclosure a printed circuit board assembly. It may include the complicated task of linking an assembly to a display of the user interface.

Box Build Assembly Services

The EMS must know all the essential details of the entire product assembly to produce a suitable box build assembly. An EMS provider may offer the following services for box building. High-level system assembly

  • Final product assembly
  • Sub-assemblies within the final product
  • Product packaging
  • Package labeling
  • programming, uploading firmware, installing software.
  • Product configuration and testing
  • Storage and warehousing
  • Fulfillment of the order
  • After-sales repair and support

Characteristics of a Good Box Build Assembly

A suitable EMS provider should offer box build service for various PCB assembly technologies such as Through-Hole Vs Surface Mount Assembly. The provider must be able to check and guarantee the quality of components within the system. Specialized machines and automation enable the production of box build assemblies with perfect specifications and without human errors. For modern box build assemblies, the service provider must have advanced component management to assemble the complex box build assemblies.

Consider Box Build during PCB Design Stage

The essential components of Device Integrations are enclosures and casings. Enclosures can be made up of many materials such as plastics, metal, metal alloys, and combinations of plastics and metals. There are many viable off-the-shelf options, mostly with lower unit costs and no restriction on minimum orders.  But the ready-made choices are not specific, the parts do not match properly, and a producer may change or remove the product.  Only custom-made enclosures will satisfy the need to fit PCBs safely alongside other electronics, components, wiring, and exhaust fans.

As plastics and polymers are more widely used, an EMS supplier must consider the variations between materials and production methods.  For example, ABS is only ideal for indoor conditions since it can be affected by excessive sunlight exposure, while ASA+PC resists elevated temperatures and extreme conditions.  New techniques may integrate soft-touch textures and paint, such as the MS-MMM molding process, preventing the need for multiple material suppliers.  It is the role of an EMS supplier to pass on this information to the customer beforehand.

In box build assemblies, metals are often incorporated. The materials are precision-fabricated. To safeguard both the packaging and components from weather, decay, corrosion, conductive or harmful particles of dust, water, and general pollution, coatings can be required.  Automated machines are used to add protective coatings on the chosen board and components to increase performance and reduce errors.



The cable and wiring sophistication will differ significantly between Device Integration projects, from a few striped, twisted, and tinned wires to complicated bundles of thousands of wires and a plethora of terminations.  Most projects include various lengths of customized wiring, distinctive colors, special pin-outs, unique identifiers, advanced connectors, etc.  Modern automatic cut and strip cabling machines can handle complicated low-volume wire straps as well as assemblies of medium-volume cables. Ensure that the EMS provider offers supply chain traceability to know where the materials are being sourced from.

Customization for Ready-made Boxes

Often users prefer to use readily accessible Off-The-Shelf modules such as boards, controllers, HMIs and monitors, power supplies, etc. Using pre-tested sub-assemblies helps reduce production costs and time, but many compromises on functionality have to be made. Using both COTS and custom-builds to better suit the client’s current and potential needs, significant device integration initiatives take a mixed approach. Some level of customization is still required in using COTS modules. An EMS supplier should have the expertise of incorporating COTS modules into larger systems.

Mechanical Components

Sometimes, the box builds assemblies need to consider electromechanical assemblies that include mechanical switches, electronic controls, gears, rollers, etc. these moving components are naturally more complex to integrate. Conflict is regularly discovered with other components, especially from various suppliers.  An EMS supplier has to have a full understanding of the demand for global components.  To boost the design stage’s speed, it should be able to use computerized modeling of CAD /CAM equipment and provide a well-equipped testing area, including microscopes and electrical measuring instruments.

Selection of an Appropriate Box

When choosing an enclosure for your box building assembly, you effectively have two options: an off-the-shelf version or something more tailor-made. There are plenty of suppliers to choose from if you opt for the COTS option, selling standardized enclosures made up of various materials having different finishes. An off-the-shelf enclosure becomes a good option when the following parameters are essential.

  • Cost-effectiveness
  • No limit on the number of orders
  • Improved accessibility

You may be restricted to a certain extent, though, as the casing will not have been built for your particular application. Also, it is crucial to ensure that you select a model that will comfortably match your PCBs. When the portions of the front and back are connected, external electronics such as LCDs, linking wires, fans, LEDs, etc. are not trapped.

If the design would allow you to conduct regular maintenance or repair is another aspect to consider. No one wants to see a product become redundant because the repair services and upgrades are too expensive to carry out. It is an excellent option to soak test or stress screen the box builds to ensure it will survive the extreme condition under which it would be put throughout its lifespan.

Many of the difficulties mentioned above will not be applicable if you want to use a bespoke enclosure since it would be built according to your requirements. Your PCBs will easily fit into place.  All interior objects would have enough space to prevent pressure on each other. The bespoke enclosures would have been built with the right characteristics to withstand the environmental condition that the enclosure is designed for.

A variety of possible issues can occur, however.  For example, a customized casing is going to be pricy, sometimes involving high upfront costs. After initial purchasing from a retailer, it should be made sure that the retailer continues to manufacture this particular casing for a stated time period. While Designing and manufacturing your box build, keep the third-part sourcing of electronic components in mind to ensure that the electronic parts required for your assembly remain accessible during your product’s lifespan.

Besides, to prevent misunderstanding at the product’s designing and development stage, a full collection of specifications and diagrams for the enclosure must be made, with appropriate tolerance thresholds and specific instructions when it comes to quality requirements.

Documentation and Changelog

Inadequate documentation and unavailability of information management trigger delays in assembling the box and also contribute to a faulty product being made. It may be tempting to let documentation slip on the back burner occasionally, so you have to make documentation a priority. Revision control and maintenance of BOMs, CAD sketches, Gerber reports, applications and all other information and data should be appropriately stored. The changes that occur in the development must be governed by a strict engineering change note (ECN) procedure. When you have a detailed changelog for reference, it’s much simpler to find challenges, and you are sure to save precious time and resources in the procedure. For illustrations and texts, the labels should be drawn clearly. The enclosures and casings should have well-specified tolerances and finishes.  Leaving these items subject to under specified can lead to quality management problems later on.


Testing is not anything that you can perform as an extra option, but rather it should be at the center of the manufacturing stage. It is preferred to perform testing at every possible step of the box build assembly. Testing offers you the confidence that when your client gets the device out of the packaging, the finished product works as intended. The expectations of the customers must be satisfied.

You may need to perform a soak test or stress screening of your box build assembly, as explained earlier.  And you need to test the specific PCBs as well. The boundary check, in-circuit test (ICT), and flying probe are common testing techniques for PCBs and box build assembly.  When deciding which choice better fits your requirements, the complexity of the offering, the market, and your budget would all be considerations, and there are pros and cons of both approaches.

The additional test can also be performed, such as powering up the final product to see if it works. Box building assembly may differ in its sophistication. Still, there are many fundamental issues that OEMs encounter again and again, irrespective of how many parts make up the individual product.  It would help if you took several precautions to guarantee that there will be no complaints before the product reaches the consumer, from sourcing an enclosure to paperwork and changelog and testing.

Streamlining the Box Build Assembly Process

To fast track the development process of box building, the following information must be provided to the box build assembler.

Design Specifications

The design specifications include product measurements such as the weight and size of the assembly. This knowledge provides the EMS with the appropriate information to decide how the units will be treated during the full assembly stage in box production. The information about the dimension is necessary for storing, packing, and transporting the end product.

Bill of Materials (BOM)

Perhaps the most significant piece of data given to an EMS supplier is the bill of materials. The BOM allows the EMS to grasp all the significant components and resources that need to be collected. Each element on a bill of materials has a particular function, procurement method, and related expense. The EMS will be able to predict development problems and develop contingency strategies with a well-crafted BOM.

3D CAD Model

The box build assembly needs to visualize the end product. Computer-aided design (CAD) applications are available that can provide visualization opportunities for three-dimensional (3D) models. Computerized sketches and models may also be translated into build instructions through this 3D CAD software that can minimize the time it takes to assemble a box build.


An EMS will also take the basic prototype of a client and produce several identical assemblies quickly. With limited information, highly trained electromechanical assemblers will also duplicate a full box building.

Testing Use Cases

During box development and assembly, customers can determine which checks have to be conducted. Visual evaluation, factory acceptance monitoring, and essential practical assessments are some of the testing use cases.  Final electrical testing of the box build assembly can be performed using the earth bond test and the flash test.

Packaging and Shipping Info

It will include valuable planning details to decide how the box building assembly would be packaged and delivered. This information helps the EMS to make choices on how the units will be handled to maximize box build speed in the full box build assembly stage.


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