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TS PCB – The Largest Supplier of Printed Circuit Boards in Poland

It is common to make a top 10 list of the best suppliers or manufacturers of PCBs in the United States, China and the United Kingdom. As much as those three countries are the most popular markets for consumer electronics, there are also other countries that share the same market potentials. One of such countries is Poland, but have you heard of the top 10 PCB suppliers in the country?

While it is uncommon to hear of a Poland circuit board manufacturer, the fact is that there are companies that specialize in that. TS PCB is the name of the largest supplier of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) in Poland.

What is TS PCB?

In addition to being Poland’s largest PCB supplier, TS PCB also runs a defined business model. Established in 1956 as a students’ initiative geared towards the streamlining of common manufacturing needs, such as making ties with rubber bands and manufacturing hula-hoop rings; the company has innovated over the years.

The Timeline of TS PCB’s Growth

Although the initiative was to build a manufacturing plant for traditional consumable productions, the company soon waxed stronger a couple of years later.

In 1984, the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturing plant that is now known as TS PCB was launched. This was followed by the manufacturing of the first PCB called the Voltage Regulator.

In its bid to remain a force to reckon with in the industry, TS PCB would later move the PCB manufacturing plant to Benzynowa Street in Gdansk in 1998, and this was followed by the development of the machine park between 2014 and 2018.

TS PCB’s Products

The company has three (3) major products or circuit board services. The breakdown of what each of those products offers is given below:

1. 5LT

TS PCB has a dedicated service called 5LT. It is dedicated to circuit product designs that require faster delivery. To that end, customers can expect the fulfillment of the orders within five (5) business days.

The following are some of the things you need to know about TS PCB’s 5LT service:

Board Specifications

Only specific Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are supported with the 5LT product. The following are some of the supported circuit boards:

  • Multilayered Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)
  • Single-sided PCBs and;
  • Double-sided circuit boards

Size of the Order

The size or volume of the PCB order is calculated in meter squares. Ideally, the fulfillment of the single-sided, double-sided and multilayered PCBs in the 5LT service is exclusive to the orders ranging between 1- and 5-meter squares.

Time of Order Placement

TS PCB also factors in the time the order was placed. According to the information on the website, the supplier ideally starts calculating the lead time from the moment the order was placed.

Also, the order fulfillment should be expected from 9 in the morning on the fifth business/working day.

2. TSka Prototype

This product or service is dedicated to facilitating the prototypes of Printed Circuit Boads (PCBs).

Here are some of the additional details of the TSka Prototype service:


Just like some of the services offered by the supplier, the TSka Prototype is subject to surcharging. The surcharge is added to the cost of the Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), as well as the product preparation.

Lead Time

The lead time or how long you should wait for your order to be fulfilled differs by the kind of PCB being produced.

For example, the realization time for the multilayered PCBs is 5 days and this is to be considered express delivery. In this case, the surcharge is 100%. The same applies to the single and the double-sided PCBs, which have a 100% surcharge and deliverable in 4 business days.

However, if you can be patient, you might just save some money on the surcharge. For the single and the double-sided PCBs, the surcharge is 0% for a 7-day realization time. On the other hand, an increment of the lead time of the multilayered PCBs to 9 days makes the surcharge zero.

It Goes Beyond Prototyping

Although the primary design of the TSka Prototype is to enable the faster production of the circuit boards for an onward electronic circuit prototyping; it doesn’t end there.

The design also supports a wide range of other features, such as:

3. Production Batch

This service is targeted at customers looking to have many units of the Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) manufactured for them.

For the production batch, we are looking at the possibility of having hundreds of circuit boards produced in the shortest time possible.

Further information is given below:

Large Area PCB Order Fulfillment

TS PCB has the capacity to fulfill larger volume orders for the Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). The major factor for meeting the demand is the supplier’s combination of advanced machinery/technologies, as well as the assurances of offering the shortest lead time possible.

PCB Duplication

Some customers may want a similar design to be used for future projects. When there is no record of the previous job, it becomes tough to produce the new circuit boards, at least, at a faster pace.

It is for this reason that TS PCB makes project documentation for each PCB it manufactures. The documentation is permanently stored and can be used to make order duplication without any additional costs to the customers.

The documentation of the previous PCB designs is also a vital tool towards the consistent, reliable and repeatable designs of future PCB projects.

Lead Time Vs. Surcharge

The rule of thumb is that the higher the lead time/realization time or delivery timeframe of the production batch, the less surcharge is required. Also, the lead time differs by the types of PCBs being produced in bulk.

Multilayered PCBs’ lead time can range from 24 hours (a day) and 12 days. For the 24-hour delivery time, the surcharge is as high as 250%, while the 5-day lead time attracts a 70% surcharge. You can expect not to pay a surcharge for a 12-day delivery timeframe.

On the other hand, the single-sided and the double-sided PCBs require up to 100% surcharge for a 3-day lead time and as high as 250% for a day delivery timeframe. The 12-day lead time, like that of the multilayer circuit boards, has zero surcharge.

Final Words

Besides manufacturing and supplying both the single-sided and the double-sided PCBs, TS PCB also does the same for the multilayered circuit boards – and even supports large volume productions.

The supplier says it has since extended its frontiers beyond Poland and now ships Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) to other countries, notable among which are Lithuania, Germany, Ireland and the Scandinavian countries.

Why is Gerber Viewer PCB Used in Circuit Board Designs?

You must have heard about the Gerber File, but you don’t know what it means. Generally, it is a dedicated file that contains the main details of a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Most circuit board manufacturers require you to submit this file before proceeding with prototyping or producing the circuit board.

To get the best results, it is better to use a Gerber File for your PCB. In this article, we explain in details what this file is used for and what relevance it has in the designs of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs).

What is a Gerber File?

According to Wikipedia, a Gerber File, also called the Gerber Format, is a dedicated file format used to specify the design formats for a Printed Circuit Board. The Gerber Viewer PCB format is usually in the form of an open, ASCII, and vector format.

It is common for the PCB manufacturer to make provisions for an online, free Gerber viewer, which you can use to maximize the outcome of the circuit board designs.

The Relevance of the Gerber Viewer in the PCB Industry

Have you ever wondered why most circuit board manufacturers hit hard on using the Gerber Viewer to ascertain the content of the Gerber File? Do you know why the Gerber File is even required in the first place?

Below are some of the top reasons why the Gerber Viewer is important for PCB fabrication and design:

Industry Standard

The Gerber Viewer, is first of all, an industry standard in the PCB market, in the sense that it is the de facto standard that helps to specify important images and sections of the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

Some of these image specifications include:

  • Drill data
  • Copper layers
  • Legend and;
  • Solder mask

Importance of Gerber Viewer in PCB Fabrication

The fabrication processes of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) can be scaled if the Gerber Viewer is used to streamline the process. At the core of the viewer’s relevance in this regard is the fact that it helps to fine-tune the fabrication data for the boards.

The Gerber Viewer PCB Formats and Extensions

There are two (2) major generations or formats of the Gerber Viewer. These are generally classified into the Extended Gerber and the Standard Gerber.

It is important to mention that the Extended Gerber format is the one being used.

Here is a breakdown of how these two generations of Gerber Viewer PCB formats work:

1. Standard Gerber

This used to be the core or primary Gerber Viewer format, until 2014 when it was revoked. During the time of use, the Standard Gerber Viewer format was a simplified ASCII format that comprised of XY coordinates and commands.

At the time of use, the Standard Gerber format was a subset of the Electronic Industries Association RS-247-D specification and was quite popular in the 1960s and 1970s.

The revoking of this format was because of the introduction of the advanced Extended Gerber format in 1998.

2. Extended Gerber

The Extended Gerber Viewer format, launched in 1998, became an advanced variant of the Standard Gerber and is still in use till this day.

One of the hallmarks of the Extended Gerber’s success is the extension of the graphics format in 2014. This extension allowed the Extended Gerber format to support the addition of meta-information or additional metadata to the graphics objects or to the image.

Below are some of the attributes of the Extended Gerber format:


The Extended Gerber format has a human-readable ASCII format, which consists of the streams of commands that generate an ordered stream of graphics objects.

It is important to mention that this format also allows for these graphics objects to either be negative or positive.

Either way, the final image can be created, only if these graphics objects are superimposed in the right order.

Excellent Labeling is Possible with the Extended Gerber Format

It is now possible to get a correct labeling or attributes of the Gerber files’ metadata. These attributes are similar to the labels that provide detailed information about the image files.

The following are some of the metadata that is conveyed or passed across with the attributes:

  • Pad Function: the metadata specifies the function of the pad, such as if the pad is a fiducial, an SMD pad or a via pad.
  • File Function: the metadata also specifies the function of the Gerber File. For example, it can detect if the file is the bottom of the copper layer or the top of the solder mask.
  • Part Representation: this is one of the most important attributes of the Extended Gerber Viewer format. It helps in finding out the part being represented in the Gerber file. For example, it can detect if the part is a coupon, a single Printed Circuit Board (PCB) or an array.

Gerber Viewer PCB Extensions

The standard extensions of file formats for the Gerber files are either .gbr or .GBR. However, it is also possible to get variants like the following:

  • .gerber
  • .GB and;
  • .geb

Important Points to Note About Working with a Gerber Viewer

It is pertinent to note that many PCB manufacturers now make provisions for free Gerber viewers on their sites. You can use these to access the content of the Gerber files you submitted and get an accurate quotation for the project.

However, the following are some of the important points to have in mind before you submit your next Gerber file:

Gerber File Extension is Important

Depending on the Gerber Viewer you use, the extensions might. Although the popular extensions are .GBR and .gbr, you can also find some PCB manufacturers that allow you to submit ZIP files.

Some manufacturers will also allow you to submit the Gerber files with the following named affixes:

  • G1
  • G2
  • GTL
  • GML
  • GTS
  • GBS
  • GTO
  • GBO
  • GBL
  • TXT

File Make

It is also possible for the PCB manufacturer to be specific about the type of file makes. For example, some of these manufacturers may prioritize the Gerber Viewer PCB files made with DipTrace, KiCad, Altium Designer, Eagle or EasyEDA.

Final Words

Finally, you can use some of the best Gerber Viewers for free and even use the ones provided by your preferred PCB manufacturer to fine-tune your PCB materials ahead of the prototyping of the circuit boards.

How Sunstone PCB Leads the Electronic Design Industry with Innovations

It is often said that the “first-mover advantage” is responsible for the success of some businesses. When a company becomes the first to launch a new concept, it tends to have a higher chance of beating the competition along the way. The same appears to be one of the hallmarks of the excellence that Sunstone PCB brings to the global electronic design market.

As one of the leading manufacturers of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) in the United States, Sunstone PCB has helped fast-track the implementation of newer innovations for the PCB industry.

This is a review of what the Sunstone PCB has to offer to make it one of the top PCB and electronic circuit manufacturers in the USA.

Let’s go Back in Time

Sunstone PCB started operations in 1972, when it was launched and with the intention of introducing innovations to the electronic design industry. It is important to point out that the company dominated the market, because of the innovative products it came up with.

Some of these products are highlighted below:

Major Electronic Design Equipment Usage

One of the core factors that differentiates one electronic circuit manufacturer from another is the quality of the boards. The quality of these circuits is directly proportional to the type of equipment used for the designs.

Between 1975 and 1976, Sunstone PCB added up to six (6) major pieces of equipment to boost the electronic designs. These pieces of equipment included:

  • Infrared reflow machine
  • Camera and darkroom
  • Dry film processor
  • Electroless tanks
  • Routing machine and digital drill machine and;
  • Conveyorized etcher

Online Ordering

Sunstone PCB, as a futuristic electronic designing company, seized the opportunity that came with the Internet, via the introduction of an online ordering platform called PCBExpress. This allowed the customers to place orders for Printed Circuit Board (PCB) designs in real-time.

The company would also expand into giving online quotations in 2001, via the introduction of the PCBPro service.

Improved Circuit Board Design Capabilities

Between the years 1982 and 1998, Sunstone PCB introduced a wide range of capabilities for electronic designs. It started with the creation of both the Layup Room and the Press Room in 1982. This would be followed suit by the development of the first sets of multilayered circuit boards.

In 1991, Sunstone PCB added the Onsite CAM Team to allow for both photo plotting and in-house tooling.

Then, in 1998, Sunstone PCB started the in-house electrical testing of the electronic designs to be sure of the full functionalities before shipping.

1. Circuit Board Assembly Services

The assembly of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) is one of the numerous services that Sunstone PCB offers. The company is able to meet up with these demands because of the collaboration with Screaming Circuits.

The collaboration, which was cemented in 2005, allowed Sunstone PCB to collaborate with Screaming Circuits for the online assembly of circuit boards.

Below are some of the company’s Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) capabilities:

Flying-Probe Electrical Test

This is a test designed to help Sunstone PCB compare the circuit boards electrically to the information contained in the submitted Gerber files.

Bundled Service

The Bundled Assembly is designed to help the PCB customers to get one quotation for all of the specifications they made for the circuit board and its assembly.

Optional Engineering Review

This is geared towards finding out and fixing any last-minute changes or manufacturability issues with the designs submitted by the PCB customers.

Specialized PCBA Service

In collaboration with Screaming Circuits, Sunstone PCB offers a wide range of specialized Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) services.

The two companies help customers with their PCBA specifics, ranging from:

  • Short-run
  • One-off
  • Prototype assemblies

Depending on the customers, the process can also include turnkey or kitted PCBA options. Above all, Sunstone PCB ensures that the PCBAs can be ordered online instantly, as well as supporting the prototyping of these circuit boards.

2. PCBExpress

Some customers have an urgent need for the circuit boards and it is important to choose a PCB manufacturer that can guarantee speedy delivery.

It is for this reason that Sunstone PCB launched a service called PCBExpress. As the name suggests, it makes the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) process to be “express-like,” whereby orders can be fulfilled in good time.

The essence of Sunstone PCB’s PCBExpress service is to shorten the lead or manufacturing time of circuit boards to as low as 24 hours (a day).

Below is some information about the PCBExpress service:

Ideal for Complex Prototyping

The service is ideal for the complex prototyping of PCBs. In this way, it is possible for the customers to manufacture anywhere between zero and 14 layers of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs).

Flexibility Offers Reduced Costs

The fact is that Sunstone PCB can handle your complex PCB orders in the shortest time possible, but sometimes, this can come at some extra charges.

If you can be patient, the company would prefer to use the flexible lead time that ranges anywhere between a day and 3 weeks. That way, you get to receive excellent quality, improved features and all at the most affordable costs.

3. ValueProto

Sunstone PCB offers extensive PCB manufacturing services and one of those is ValueProto. It is ideal for PCB consumers who are looking to manufacture up to 100 PCBs, with up to 6 layers, while saving costs.

The core feature of the ValueProto service is to help customers stick to their budget while getting almost everything they wanted for the circuit boards.

Below are some of the Sunstone PCB’s ValueProto service:

  • The lead time is flexible and ranges between a day and 3 weeks.
  • Up to 6 layers of circuit boards can be manufactured.
  • Supports several finishes, such as Immersion Silver (RoHS) and Tin/Lead Solder.
  • Free UPS ground shipping

Final Thoughts

Sunstone is an extensive provider of different Printed Circuit Board (PCB) services, ranging from assembly, design and prototyping. The major benefits of having your PCBs customized with the company are real-time quotations via the OneQuote form, flexible lead times and dedicated customer support to help you every step of the way.

Protel PCB: The World’s Leading Circuit Board Design Software

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) have come to stay, in addition to simplifying the design processes for electronics. The simplicity of a PCB is directionally proportional to the effectiveness of the process technology. Today, it is common to use circuit board software to make these boards.

With several software options out there, you may be wondering if you would be able to find the best out of the lot. Indeed, one of the best PCB design software is Protel PCB and in this article, we talk extensively about what it has to offer.

What is the Meaning of Protel PCB?

It is a dedicated software used for the designs of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). It is to be noted that PCBs can sometimes be difficult to design, especially when the configuration options are so much.

With the aid of software like Protel PCB, you can be sure to get around the complicated design processes, while scaling the designs in good time.

The Rebranding of Protel PCB

It is not common to find anyone talking about Protel PCB nowadays and that is not because the software is extinct. It is simply because Protel PCB has been rebranded to Altium Designer, named after the developer, Altium.

You may be wondering why the rebranding took place. We picked a few points about that from the official blog post by Altium.

The following are some of the points we deduced:

  • Protel PCB is not to be known officially as Altium Designer 365
  • The rebranding to Altium Designer 365 also paved the way for the implementation of newer processes, including the pioneering of newer technologies for the PCB design process.
  • The Altium Designer 365 introduces a new unified design environment that supports commonality. This way, it becomes easier to do away with some of the challenges that come with synchronizing the PCB designs with different software systems.

Why Protel PCB is the Best PCB Design Software

There is no denying that there are a couple of other PCB design tools you can find out. But if you are looking for a unified experience, and a lot of other unique features, your best choice should be Protel PCB.

Here are a couple of reasons why you should choose Protel PCB over the other PCB design tools:

1. Unification

Considering how technical Printed Circuit Board (PCB) designs could be, it would be a great idea to use a unified platform where you get to handle most of the design iterations. That is what Protel PCB offers with the unified design approach.

This approach sees the software offering “one interface, one data model and endless possibilities” for your PCB design needs.

By leveraging the unified design environment, you can now process different aspects of circuit board designs, ranging from the schematics, harness designs, PCB layouts and the documentations.

The unified design also supports the flexible integration of the Protel PCB/Altium Designer software to “every detail of the electronics design process from idea to manufacture.”

The unification of the design process is not limited to the designs, as the data models are also supported. The unified data models include the support for a single, yet cohesive data model. This model also allows for the following:

  • Easy access to the harness designs, schematics and layouts.
  • Flexible manipulation of the detailed data for the following: harness designs, schematics, simulations, layouts and multi-boards.

2. Excellent Parts and BOMs Management

Managing the parts and components needed for the design is one of the major features of the Altium Designer.

First, you want to use the Manufacturer Part Search feature to look up the components from the listed manufacturers.

Second and most important, Protel PCB software has a dedicated Real-Time BOM Management with ActiveBOM feature. It is designed to help circuit designers to source component data, manage these components and get access to the suppliers right from the Altium Designer.

3. Protel PCB Supports Interactive Routing

The Altium Designer PCB design software also supports interactive routing of the components, whereby the electronic components can be routed in real-time. This is in addition to the support for Interactive Routing, which allows for the routing of these components in any of the following ways:

  • Walkaround
  • Push
  • Hug and;
  • Slide

4. 3D Routing

The 3D Routing capability of the Altium Designer/Protel PCB is an advanced feature that allows for the integration of both the mechanical and electrical requirements into a single solution.

Using this, you can then make additional incorporations or integrations, notably the standard Surface Mount Technology (SMT) footprints from the component libraries, as well as using the schematic design to drive the connectivity and schematics of the boards.

Getting Started with the Altium Designer

If you are keen on using the Protel PCB design software for your next PCB projects, there are a couple of options for you to choose from.

We must also mention that Protel PCB software is a bit pricey, but worth it. However, you might just get a chance to use it for free – for some time.

According to the information on the website, Altium Designer offers a free trial. The terms of the free trial include but are not limited to:

  • The Altium Enterprise Solution is not included in the free trial.
  • The free trial version also limits the usage to the Altium 365 Standard Subscription. Thus, access to the Pro and Enterprise plans is not allowed.

The Altium Designer License

To make the most out of the Protel PCB or Altium Designer, you want to subscribe to any of the licenses. The company makes these licenses available, as per the needs of your business.

Below are the Altium Designer Licensing options you can choose from today:

  • Perpetual: starting at $11,970, the Perpetual Altium Designer license allows you to use the license as long as you comply with the agreement terms.
  • Term-Based: this is an affordable variant to the Perpetual license. Starting at $355, the Term-Based Altium Designer license allows you to keep using the software, as long as you keep renewing the subscription/license.

Final Words

Protel PCB otherwise known as Altium Designer, is an excellent software to help you scale your Printed Circuit Board (PCB) designs. Pick any of the available licenses mentioned in this post to get started or contact the sales department to give you a custom quotation for the software.

Why PCB TG is an Important Metric for Determining the Reliability of Circuit Boards

The temperature rating of a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) can have an impact on how it functions. This is why it is important to check the temperature and ensure that it sticks to the right ratings at all times.

TG has become the popular metric for measuring the circuit board’s temperature and in this article, you will learn how important it is.

What is TG?

The full meaning is Glass Transition Temperature. It is both the base material parameter for the temperature (˚C), as well as the mechanical property that shows the temperature at which a fiberglass, in this case, the PCB, can become amorphous, especially when it is exposed to lamination at higher temperatures.

What is the Relevance of TG for PCBs?

One may wonder what the relationship is between the Glass Transition Temperature (TG) and the Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). The major relationship between the two is that the TG helps to highlight the level at which the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) can get to before it becomes susceptible to the rigidity that comes with lamination.

The Correlation of the TG and the Substrate

It can sometimes be confusing to determine the PCB TG, when you are not sure if the Glass Transition Temperature (TG) is lower or higher.

The ideal way to be sure is to use a simple calculation, which is that the working or operating temperature of the PCB should be lower than the Glass Transition Temperature (TG) of the substrate.

To that end, once the TG value or rating of the PCB goes above that of the substrate, it is likely to cause problems.

What is the Ideal PCB TG?

The ideal operating temperatures for Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are generally classified into three (3) different classes. These are the Standard, Median and the High. The High TG is mostly preferred because of the stability and reliable performance is brings to the PCB.

The Standard TG also called the Standard FR4 TG, ranges between 130 and 140˚C of operating temperature for the PCB.

The Median TG has the PCB’s operating temperature at 150˚C.

The High TG is usually higher than 170˚C.


There might be exceptions to the above, especially for the High TG FR4, which tends to have a higher chemical and mechanical resistance to both moisture and heat, when compared to the Standard FR4 TG.

Understanding the Transition

It is almost impossible to burn or subject Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) to excessive heat that would melt the boards. Rather, what happens is a transition from one state to another and that is possible because of the Glass Transition Temperature (TG) in the PCB.

Now, what this means is that instead of the circuit boards to melt or become softened, they would rather transition or move from a state of being hard and crisp to become rubbery or rubber-like.

Why the PCB TG must be Maintained

One of the main reasons why the TG of the circuit board must not be exceeded, at least, not above the TG value of the substrate is because of the following reasons:

1. Property Loss

It is possible for the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) lose a considerable amount of the electrical and mechanical properties when it exceeds the TG value of the substrate.

2. Changes in the Substrate

The substrate of the PCB will be at the receiving end when the PCB TG exceeds. In this case, the substrate would be subjected to changing from the glassy state to a rubbery state.

Disparities in the PCB TG

There has been a need to balance how the Glass Transition Temperature (TG) of PCBs is measured, considering that some of these circuit boards differ by the technical properties they have.

However, it must be mentioned that the greater disparity between the technical properties of PCBs has to do with the inability to come up with a precise measurement or deterministic pattern for the TG.

This disparity is tenable because of certain factors, ranging from the molecular structure of the PCB’s material, the use cases and the heating processes of the materials.

However, it must be noted that the disparity notwithstanding, the PCB tends to undergone both structural changes from glass to rubbery, as well as becoming prone to either breaking or crackling.

What is the Best TG for PCBs?

If you are to choose between the different Glass Transition Temperatures (TGs) of PCBs, the High TG should be a better choice.

Here are some reasons why choosing the High TG is better:

Higher Temperature Requirement Matching

The High PCB TG is ideal for use with the circuit boards that require a higher temperature, especially the ones up to 170˚C.

Improved PCB Stability

The stability and reliability of the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) tend to change, as the board’s material in particular and the properties in extension, are subject to expansion and structural changes, as the temperature increases.

In light of that, it is imperative to use a Glass Transition Temperature (TG) that can keep the board’s performance at optimum levels, despite the temperature increment. The High TG meets that requirement, as provides a better chemical and mechanical resistance for the PCB than the Standard FR4 TG could have provided.

Also, the High TG also extends the circuit board’s lifespan, by reducing potential PCB working failures, including short circuiting.

High TG Assures of Lower Thermal Expansion

Using the High TG in your Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an excellent way to reduce the board’s material’s chances of expansion.

It is obtainable because the Higher TG of PCBs tends to undergone minimal changes, even when operating at higher temperatures. That way, you can be sure of less susceptibility of the PCB to breaking or crackling after bulging under higher operating temperatures.

Versatile Usage

The use of TG PCBs with higher temperature ratings is not limited to single boards. You can also use the High TG with multilayered circuit boards. The reason is simple: multilayered PCBs tend to produce more heat, which is as a result of the placement of several electronic components in a compact space.

By using the substrate made of the High TG material, it becomes possible to keep the circuit board at optimal performance, despite the clusters.


Out of the three (3) major classes of PCB TGs, the High TG stands out because of the higher stability, the ideal use with multilayered PCBs and the lower thermal expansion. PCBs with higher TGs can be used in the automotive, metal and aerospace industries.

PCBS PCTS And Their Uses

PCBs and PCTs are man-made substances that were widely manufactured on a global basis during the 1930s and 1980s. They were mostly employed in lubricants, as well as electrical and hydraulic equipment. They are widespread and have been found in soil, surface and groundwater, as well as food. They are currently considered probable human carcinogens and have a variety of negative consequences for both people and animals.

In the 1970s, some nations restricted the use of PCBs and PCTs. Since 1985, their usage and promotion in Europe have been severely limited.

What are PCBS?

PCBs are a class of organic compounds created by humans that include carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine atoms. Many of PCB’s physical and chemical features stem from the quantity and placement of chlorine atoms inside the molecule. PCBs have no discernible taste or odour, and their viscosity ranges from an oil to a waxy solid.

What are PCTS?

Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) have essentially identical qualities as highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in that they are extremely stable and bioaccumulative, and biomagnification through food webs is conceivable.


Building materials, lubricants, coatings, plasticizers, inks, pesticide extenders, carbonless copy paper, paints, flame retardants, and, most often, electrical transformers and capacitors (tiny capacitors in domestic electrical equipment), where the compounds are utilized in an oil basis as an insulating fluid. Although they were widely utilized in the past, the risk caused by PCBs/PCTs much surpasses any advantages achieved from their usage.

Since 1986, the supply and use of PCB/Ts in new plants and equipment have been prohibited. Until 2010, existing equipment having minor quantities of PCBs below 500ppm (parts per million) was allowed to be used.

The main source of PCB/T emissions to air and land remains PCB-based dielectric heat transfer fluids from outdated electrical equipment (e.g. capacitors, transformers, electrical switching gear).


They are poisonous in varying degrees and range in consistency from thin, light-coloured liquids to yellow or black waxy solids. PCBs were employed in many industrial and commercial applications because to their non-flammability, chemical stability, high boiling point, and electrical insulating qualities, including:

Because PCBs are used in so many different industries, you may find them practically anywhere, from little consumer electronics to massive pieces of machinery. Where do printed circuit boards come into play? Here are ten of the most prevalent PCB uses categorized by industry.

· Medical Products

As technology advances, exposing new possibilities, the healthcare sector is adopting an increasing number of PCBs. PCBs are found in equipment used for diagnosis, monitoring, therapy, and other purposes.

When creating medical PCBs, special care must be taken to ensure dependability since proper operation might be vital to patient health. In many circumstances, PCBs must also fulfil stringent sanitary standards, particularly those used in implants. Boards used for implants and a variety of other purposes, such as emergency room monitoring, must also be compact. As a result, many medical PCBs use high-density interconnect (HDI).

· LEDs

LEDs, or light-emitting diodes, are an increasingly popular lighting technology used for residential and commercial lighting as well as in a variety of industries, such as automotive, medical, and computer technology. LEDs are popular due to their energy efficiency, extended life, and tiny size.

One function of PCBs in LED applications is to transport heat away from the bulb. LEDs have a shorter average life when exposed to high temperatures. As a result, LED PCBs are often built of aluminium, which can transport heat better than other metals. This reduces the need for a second heat sink in a design, allowing it to be more compact.

· Industrial Machinery

The industrial sector makes extensive use of printed circuit boards. Much of the equipment at manufacturing and distribution centres, as well as other types of industrial facilities, is powered by electronic components.

PCBs used in the industrial sector must frequently be extremely powerful and long-lasting in order to endure the severe conditions found in industrial facilities. PCBs may be required to withstand severe handling, vibrating machinery, intense temperatures, or harsh chemicals. To achieve this requirement for durability, industrial PCBs may be thicker than other types of PCBs and constructed of robust metals or thermal-resistant materials. To boost longevity, industrial PCB assembly services may utilize thru-hole technology.

PCBs are used in a variety of industrial applications, including:

Electric drills and presses used in manufacturing are powered by PCB-based electronics.

PCBs are used in the components that power various sorts of industrial equipment. DC-to-AC power converters, solar power cogeneration equipment, and other items are included in this category of power equipment.

PCBs are frequently used to power equipment that measures and regulates pressure, temperature, and other variables.

As robots, industrial IoT technology, and other forms of sophisticated technology become increasingly ubiquitous, new applications for PCBs in the industrial sector emerge.

· PCBs and Everyday Electronics

PCBs are sweeping the consumer electronics industry. PCB devices are becoming a better and better option as they grow smaller and smaller, especially when the outmoded alternative is enormous, convoluted masses of wires. Smartphones and watches, Tablets, Laptops and desktop computer towers, Video game consoles, Refrigerators, and Programmable coffee machines are some of the most prominent applications of PCBs in daily electronics.

Uses of PCTS

PCT is mostly utilized in investment casting waxes and as a substitute for PCB. PCT has been detected in several environmental samples, including soil, water, shellfish, fish, seals, birds, and terrestrial animals, despite its limited use to date. It has also been found in food and paper products.

Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) have nearly equivalent properties to high-chlorinated PCBs: they are exceedingly stable, and bioaccumulative, and biomagnification through food webs is possible. PCT is mostly used in investment casting waxes and as a PCB alternative. Despite its limited use to date, PCT has been found in a wide range of environmental samples, including soil, water, shellfish, fish, seals, birds, and terrestrial mammals. It has also been discovered in paper and food goods. PCT residues have been found in human tissues such as blood, liver, fat, and milk in several regions. Animal studies have revealed that the long-term harmful effects of PCT are crucial. In vertebrates, PCT has a strong inductive impact on microsomal enzymes in the liver and may induce liver damage, including tumours. Hormonal—and immunological—system disruptions have also been noted. The most serious ecological risk posed by PCT and PCB is the potential disruption of species’ reproductive systems. The use of PCT is not regulated in many countries. The use of PCT is restricted to closed systems in some countries, although the EEC is considering expanding its use.


PCBs and PCTs are both colourless liquids with high chemical and biological resistance. Their stability improves with chlorination degree (the more chlorine atoms in the structure, the more stable they are), and they prefer to survive in the environment. Because of their chemical components, they are extremely soluble in oil and fat. This causes them to accumulate in animal fatty tissues, where they become progressively concentrated, especially at the top of the food chain.

PCBs are categorized as probable human carcinogens because they cause a wide range of negative consequences in both animals and people, including reproductive toxicity, teratogenicity, and immunotoxicity.

Neither group of chemicals is thought to exist naturally. Their prevalence in the environment is solely attributable to industrial activities and unregulated consumption.

Mentor PCB Best Solution To Get Your PCB Made

When searching for the perfect design automation company, you can go for mentor PCB because they are one of the best electronic design automation organizations. They are a leader in the automation industry, and you can always find the latest information about what is going on in their enterprise on their website and social media accounts.

The best part about mentor PCB is it is fully integrated with the Siemens Digital Industries software community. This is a perfect geometry for you if you are looking for an innovative integrated PCB system design for your electronic devices. In the long run, it gives you much flexibility to get the best electronic devices.

There is no need to worry about anything because their community experience is so unique that it makes it easy for you to work with them. It is also possible to easily share it with others, and you can learn from this platform. There are a lot of learning opportunities available by mentor PCB so that you can get in touch with avoid several product users and get the most out of your electronic device by getting your hands on the best PCB system.

In this article, we will discuss all you need to know about mentor PCB and all the opportunities available to learn more about the PCB system to improve your electronic devices. So do not wait anymore and keep reading to find more information about mentor PCB.

Why Do You Need PCB, And What Is It in The First Place?

If you are reading this article today, you might already know what PCB is. It is crucial for every electronic device nowadays. It is a board that is made from multiple layers of electronic conductors as well as an insulator. There are other components in it as well, which bring this board together.

It includes resistors that are connected to create a complete design. Copper tracks are also used to get a better flow of communication throughout the board, and your electronic devices are successful. PCB is a basic need for every electronic device; that is why you need to get your hands on PCB if you are running any electronic manufacturing business.

You will find PCB in almost every electronic device, such as Smartphones and televisions. They are even applicable in automobiles and cars because there is an LED system in the card. Different types of electrical wiring and components bring this board together, and must be done safely.

The industry sets specific standards, and you must follow them during the manufacturing process. Only then is it safe and will protect you from other hazards, so the employees are also safe. PCB is applicable in all aspects of life and is the foundation of every electronic device.

History of PCB

PCB has revolutionized the semiconductor industry; it would not be wrong because it is a fact now. PCB is replacing the discrete semiconductor components, and there is no use for them anymore because PCB is much faster and more reliable.

The best part about PCB is that it is very cost-effective and it is not expensive at all. If you are looking forward to saving money, get your hands on electronic device manufacturing. Get PCB from a mentor PCB. They are leaders in the industry. Be satisfied when sourcing your PCB from them directly for your organization or Enterprise.

Applications and uses of PCB

PCB contains electronic components and conductors on its surface. They are applicable in different types of Electronics nowadays, such as computers and smartphones. It is to create various prototypes for developing any electronic device. This is a stage before the actual finished product, which is how it is very cost-effective and saves money. 3D printing technology is quite popular nowadays, and industries are also taking advantage of this technology on a small scale.

However, some manufacturers need more work creating their customized PCB. This method will further reduce your cost and make it a very cheap solution. You can find this in almost every device nowadays; it contains proper conductive and metal layers. Prototyping is the main application for it nowadays. It is applicable in different types of educational programs because it is inexpensive.

How Do We Identify the Components Of PCB?

Learning how to identify PCB components when in the industry is essential. There are many methods to do this because there are multiple components available in its design. Sometimes it is difficult to identify the parts of PCB, even for experts. However, guidelines are general, and you can always take help from them to identify different components of the PCB.

If you want to place the PCB components, you can also look at the package to get some idea. It will contain all the details about the functions of PCB to give you an idea.
Another thing that you can do is take a look at the shape of the component. When it is an integrated circuit, it will have a rectangular shape. Also, look at the marking in the PCB parts to get an idea about the component.


PCB is applicable in all aspects of life nowadays. It’s crucial for making any electronic device successful, whether it is an automobile or something you will use in your house. Four essential layers in the PCB board contain Copper and solder mask.

Copper is ubiquitous in all kinds of printed circuit boards nowadays; there are many reasons for that. It is for grounding, but it fulfills many other uses as well. Printed circuit boards are primarily applicable in engineering to get the best results when creating electronic circuits. Most of the time, they are of copper.

Other materials are available for the manufacturing process. They are applicable for many applications globally and comprise a standard design in electronics. Making an electronic device successful is impossible without getting your hands on the best PCB.

To make the best PCB system possible, get in touch with mentor PCB because they provide a one-stop solution. They will answer any query regarding the PCB process, and you can contact them today to get the correct information.

How IPC Creates and Maintains the Standards for PCB and Electronics Manufacturing

It is often said that Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) changed the procedures for producing and testing the capabilities of electronics. But what is not so popular is that the presence of certain standards and industry-centric measures have helped both PCB consumers and manufacturers to follow specific rules to make the most out of the boards.

The absence of such standards could have been inimical to the widespread reception that PCBs receive today. We must commend the IPC for helping form and keep these standards active to this day.

In this article, we are going to discuss how the IPC PCB standards became a gamechanger for the electronics manufacturing and assembly market.

What is IPC?

The full name is Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits. It initially went by the name, Institute for Printed Circuits, which was the name it had when founded in 1957.

IPC as a Trade Organization

At the core of how the IPC PCB standards influence the electronics manufacturing and assembly market is the fact that IPC is a trade organization. As such, it is organized and mutually-managed by a group of enthusiasts and professionals whose core goal is to see to the standardization of electronic equipment, as well as the assembling of such equipment.

Why the Name Change?

At the time of establishment, the Institute for Printed Circuits, as the name suggested, was geared towards the creation, enforcement and continues implementation of the standards that would regulate how Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are made.

However, the organization would soon rename to the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits in 1999. This can be narrowed down to the changing technological processes for PCB production, as well as the organization’s commitment to offer inclusive standardization for the different electronics assembling processes.

Thus, the renaming to the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits helped the organization to narrow down to the emerging trends in the circuit market, one of the which is the transitioning from bare circuit boards to the packaging and electronic assemblies.

What Difference do the Standards Make?

As mentioned earlier, the absence of standards or certain guidelines could pave way for anomalies and chaos in the circuit board production and assembling processes. But with the wide range of standards and design guidelines set out by the IPC, it has become possible to regulate the industry even better.

Below are some of the advantages or the reasons why complying to the IPC PCB standards can make all the difference both for the manufacturer and consumer of circuit boards.

1. Affordable PCB Designs

While it is possible for the Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) in particular and the Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) in general to be affordable; it is also possible for the aforementioned to create additional costs in the long-run.

One of the major reasons for cost add-ups for these is the non-standard processes used in the production. Thus, when a PCB manufacturer doesn’t comply with the IPC PCB standards, it is very possible that the manufacturer is going off the books and more often than not, it implies doing things besides the laid-down processes.

In such instances, there tends to be additional costs to rectify the issues – if they can be rectified.

But when a PCB manufacturer or EMS provider complies with the IPC standards, it makes the job easier, as the standards are in place to keep the entire process in check.

2. IPC PCB Standards Bolster Production Efficiency

Besides the fact that PCB manufacturers that don’t follow the IPC PCB standards are penalized, it is also evident that following the guidelines goes a long way to keep the industry sane.

It is more of a pipeline or chain of command that details what should be done at every point of the circuit board and electronics manufacturing and assembly processes. That way, all hands are on deck, starting from the board suppliers, up to the manufacturers. The outcome would be the delivery of excellent electronics manufactured and assembled as per the dictates of the IPC PCB standards.

3. IPC PCB Standards Encourage Innovation

Due to the existence of these guidelines, it has become imperative for EMS providers and PCB manufacturers to be creative with how they go about offering their services.

In this light, we are looking at the possibilities of these companies and service providers to create unique solutions just to remain relevant.

The PCB industry is continually inundated with new technologies and a healthy competition among the key players in line with the IPC PCB standards helps to encourage the companies to improve in the process technologies and product offerings.

4. The Reliability of the Standards is not in Doubt

One may wonder if the IPC PCB standards are to be trusted. Yes, these guidelines can be trusted for various reasons, including the following:

  • Inclusive Participation: it is said that at the time of launching the organization, the IPC had at least six (6) Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturers as one of the early founders. Today, there are over 3,600 trainers over the worldwide, who have been certified to train and test on the IPC PCB standards. That way, you can be certain that the outcome of these standards is not left in the hands of a few.
  • Varieties of Standards: it is safe not to assume that the IPC PCB standards are not limited to the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) market. Rather, these standards cut across different aspects of electronics manufacturing and assembly.

What are the IPC PCB Standards?

According to the information on the official IPC website, there are over “300+ active multilingual industry standards, covering nearly every stage of the electronics product development cycle.”

To give you some ideas, these standards range from the general documents that specify the patterns, terms and the dimensions and tolerances for PCBs.

The standards also include design specifications, such as the:

  • IPC-2223 Sectional Design Standard for Flexible Printed Boards.
  • IPC-2141A Design Guide for High-Speed Controlled Impedance Circuit Boards and;
  • IPC-2251 Design Guide for the Packaging of High Speed Electronic Circuit.

It also covers the specifications for materials for circuit boards, as well as setting out the standards for the flexible assembly and materials.


The existence of the IPC standards both for Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) and electronics manufacturing and assembly in general paves the way for a “common language” or design iteration guideline to be used all over the world to ensure the reliability of the electronic products manufactured and shipped all over the world.

Fritzing PCB: An Open-Source Electronic Design Software

Today, when we are counting some of the best electronic design software platforms, we wouldn’t fail to add Fritzing PCB to the list. The platform has been here for many years and has continued to live to the promises of making “electronics made easy.”

Who Can Use Fritzing PCB?

If you are a student, electronics design enthusiast or you have an electronics manufacturing company; you can be sure to get value using the Fritzing PCB platform.

As an open-source platform, Fritzing PCB makes it simpler for anyone interested in learning and maximizing the potentials of electronics design to use it.

Besides, there are a couple of learning resources on the site to get you started. From electronics designers, enthusiasts, hobbyists and electronic makers, the platform is what you need to start working on your first and subsequent electronic designs.

The Tiers of Fritzing PCB Services

The Fritzing PCB open-source electronics design platform went further to simply how the users can maximize it for their projects.

The different processes have been generally categorized into four (4) major electronics design environments or interfaces and each of those are optimized as per the capabilities of the users.

Here is a breakdown of the different electronic design environments you can find on the platform:


This is ideal for the designers and hobbyists who are familiar with the processes of coding the electronic designs.

For this environment, Fritzing PCB makes provisions for writing both the codes for Rasberry PI and Arduino.


The schematic interface is ideal for the users who prefer creating and designing the electronic circuit using the standard schematic symbols.


Fritzing PCB also supports the configuration or customization of the electronic designs on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

To this end, it enables the PCB interface or environment for the PCB enthusiasts, designers and hobbyists alike to design and make layouts for the circuit board for the electronic projects.


The breadboard interface or environment is ideally used for transitioning from making the designs on a diagram to making the real-world designs. In this case, these designs will have a realistic feel or real-world usage by having the electronic designs placed on a breadboard.

The Fritzing PCB Services

Below are some of the services and products Fritzing offers:

1. Parts Creation

Aside from allowing the users to leverage the different environments or interfaces to make electronic designs, Fritzing also engages in parts creation.

This service involves the development of specific parts for the customers/clients who would want these parts to be featured on the Fritzing platform.

Depending on the complexity of the parts and the lead time, the charge could be higher.

However, customers using the parts creation tend to benefit in the following ways:

  • Fritzing helps them to ship the created parts, in addition to making the future releases available to them.
  • High-quality documentations are created for each of the created parts.
  • Fritzing also handles the inclusion of excellent graphics in the original design style of these parts.

2. Fritzing Fab

Fritzing has a fabricating section, which is called Fritzing Fab. Here, users are allowed to use the full-scale Fritzing PCB production service, from where they get to inexpensively turn their PCB designs into finished circuit boards.

Fritzing collaborated with AISLER to facilitate the offerings of its Fritzing Fab service. We also want to point out that Fritzing had to set-up what it calls the “Friends of Fritzing,” which is a not-for-profit association that doubles as an umbrella organization for the Fritzing-AISLER partnership.

3. The Fritzing Parts Library

It is a dedicated library of the required parts for your electronic designs. The following are some of the things you need to know about it:

Parts’ Organization

The parts that are pre-installed in the Fritzing Parts Library are organized into “bins.” You can access these from the parts palette on the right.

Parts’ Usage

To use any of the parts, here are the things you must do:

  • Drag the part(s) you need on the sketch area to start using.
  • Adapt the properties of the parts you are using in the info palette.

Parts’ Distribution

Although the parts are generally classified into bins, there are also other sub-divisions to the classifications.

Ideally, Fritzing ships these parts in the form of several or multiple bins. Now, these bins have been further divided based on the types of parts they contain. Here are the major divisions:

  • Core: the core bin is where you will find the standard Fritzing parts. You will also find the families or categories of similar parts are aggregated or made into one.
  • Mine: the mine bin is where you will find the custom Fritzing parts, that is, the parts you created.

A Word About the Fritzing Learning Center

This is a dedicated section for Fritzing users to get in-depth information about how to use the Fritzing PCB platform.

Getting Started with Fritzing

To get started, you want to download the Fritzing application. According to the information on the website, the source code for Fritzing is readily available on the GitHub repository.

However, Fritzing seeks support for the further advancement of the project. That is why it charges a minimum of $10 or 8€ per application download. The payment would be put to good use, such as fixing bugs, integrating new features and facilitating further developments for future releases of the software.


The Fritzing application is available and compatible with specific devices. It is ideally used with Windows, Linux and Mac devices.

Why You Should Use Fritzing

In case you are wondering if using the Fritzing PCB platform is worth it, here are some reasons why you should give it a try:

Extensive Library

From the standard parts to the custom parts, Fritzing offers the users an extensive library of components they need for their electronic designs. The library also features modules for Rasberry PI and Arduino.


The core purpose of the Fritzing PCB platform is to help beginners get started with electronic designs. With the user-friendly design, both hobbyists and professionals can use the platform.

Flexible Electronic Designs

Fritzing provides for multiple, flexible design environments, ranging from coding, breadboard, circuit boards and schematics. With these options, the users can be confident of choosing the right environment that aligns with their electronic projects.

Final Words

The Fritzing PCB platform makes the design or configuration of circuits simpler. However, improvements are needed in the area of making it possible to simulate the circuits to detect faults and errors.

Types and Properties of FR4 TG

As the world’s technology advances, high FR4 TG PCBs are in high demand. With the help of electrical components, this PCB material can hold higher temperatures. This ensures that printed circuit boards remain in stable condition.

A PCB’s temperature area may occasionally experience heat levels over the recommended operating temperature. This extreme temperature causes PCBs to melt as a result of thermal expansion. Temperatures that are too high will cause expansion or contraction between PCB layers. On the other hand, the FR4 high TG PCB is the most effective alternative to conventional PCBs for removing all of these uncertainties.

If you want to learn more about FR4 TG PCB material, continue reading the article.

What Is FR4 TG?

A flame-retardant composite material used in printed circuit boards, consisting of glass fabric and epoxy resin. To combat a higher glass transition temperature, PCB boards have reinforcing material of the fourth grade. Similarly to printed circuit boards in electrical machines, this substrate’s relevance in PCBs is significant.

The abbreviation “FR” represents the materials fire retardant. Most PCB makers use FR4 because of its consistent physical and mechanical properties. Epoxy pigment board is used in FR-4 laminates to improve the reliability of circuit boards.  The Flammability Rating (UL94-V0) enables the use of FR4 TG PCB in several applications where incisive conditions may be present.

Types of FR4 TG PCB

According to temperature ranges from low to high and the number of copper layers, there are three main types of FR-4 PCB. The types are as follows:

  • Single-Sided PCB
  • Double-Sided PCB
  • Four or Multilayer PCB

Properties of FR4 TG PCB

The usage of high TG PCB materials is increasing in the worldwide electronics sector. These PCBs with high TG are helpful in communication devices, control panels, and computers.

The primary distinction here is the inexpensive costs. This is due to these FR4 PCBs with a high TG being more costly than standard TG PCBs. Moreover, these materials with a high TG possess the majority of essential features. These consist of the following:

· Flame Retardant

Flame retardants are chemicals used to treat materials to reduce the risk of a fire spreading through them. The excellent thermal, mechanical, and electrical qualities of FR4 substrates make them ideal for various electronic applications. FR laminates and prepregs may be used in various applications because they are versatile, flexible, and reliable in production.

· Good Electrical Properties

Signal integrity and impedance issues depend heavily on the electrical qualities of a PCB material. They determine how quickly an electrical signal passes through the material and how much electrical charge a particular volume can hold.

· Low Moisture Absorption

Moisture absorption refers to a PCB material’s resistance to water absorption when submerged in water. The weight increase brought on by water absorption in a circuit board material is expressed as a percentage increase when measured under controlled circumstances. When immersed in water for 24 hours, FR4 materials absorb moisture at a very low rate (0.10%).

What Are The Advantages Of FR4 TG?

· Low-Priced Materials

The material for FR-4 printed circuit boards is not only inexpensive but also easily accessible. Despite this, their operational quality is of an exceptionally high standard. On the other hand, the cost of a material with a high Glass Transition Temperature and a High Comparative Tracking Index is rather high.

· High Dielectric Strength

The High Dielectric strength of FR-4 material ranges between 4.25 and 4.55, depending on variables such as glass weave type, thickness, resin percentage, and copper foil roughness. An insulator’s or dielectric’s strength is the highest electric field it can withstand before failing as an insulator or conducting electricity. Therefore, selecting a material with a greater dielectric strength assures the insulator’s superior quality.

· Weight Bearing

FR-4 is a blend of Fiberglass and epoxy resin, so it offers the PCB a high load-bearing capability and mechanical strength. However, a material’s strength and load-bearing capacity is mostly determined by its thickness. The thickness of a typical FR-4 material can range anywhere from 0.2 to 3.2 m.

· Moisture Resistant

Humidity has no impact on the expansion and contraction of FR-4 printed circuit boards. The electrical, thermal, and resistance of the material to the formation of Conductive Anode Filament (CAF) when the circuit is turned on are all impacted by moisture absorption. Hence, FR-4’s great moisture resistance offers it an advantage as a base PC material and makes it suitable for usage in humid environments and maritime PCB applications.

· An Increased Glass Transition Temperature

With a TG of 150Tg or 170Tg, FR-4 is particularly resistant to high temperatures. TG represents the PCB’s glass transition temperature. The Glass Transition Temperature describes the temperature at which the PCB begins to soften and lose its form. This is why the TG value of PCB is so important. As more TG values are available, greater PCB performance may be guaranteed. In addition to influencing its heat resistance, PCB’s TG value also impacts its resistance to water and chemicals.

· Increased Decomposition Value

The decomposition temperature is the temperature at which approximately 5% of a PCB laminate’s mass is lost due to breakdown. The FR-4 PCB material has a higher temperature of breakdown, which is greater than 345 degrees Celsius. High decomposition temperatures provide better protection and increase PCB longevity.


FR-4 TG circuit boards are used in digital, analogue, and mixed-signal circuits operating at high speeds. This is because they transfer signals swiftly. The electrical circuits can work at temperatures up to 125°C without damage. The circuit boards can withstand temperatures up to 150°C. These temperatures make circuit boards appropriate for automotive, medical, and aerospace applications.

In order to protect the embedded electronic circuits in FR-4 TG circuit boards, they should only be used at temperatures below 100°C. They are also simple to produce because they require no further processing. The thermoset resin used to create FR-4 TG circuit boards is chemically heat-resistant and hence extremely brittle. The circuit board can work safely at temperatures as high as 150 °C. Highly recommended for usage in aerospace, medical, and automotive industries, FR-4 TG circuit boards are appropriate for cleaning with combustible chemicals.